Development and validation of a new scale for prediction of low back pain occurrence among nurses

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Mohammad Javad Jafari
Foroogh Doshman Fana Yazdi
Yadollah Mehrabi
Sakineh Rakhshanderou
Mahnaz Saremi


There are several scales for prediction of low back pain (LBP) occurrence, but most of them only consider occupational aspect. This study aimed to develop and validate a new biopsychosocial scale for the LBP prediction among nurses. In this mixed-method study, a scale was developed by integrating the findings from the literature review and the semi-structured interviews. The qualitative and quantitative face and content validation were then performed. The construct validation was performed based on the hypothesis testing by independent-samples t-test using the SPSS in a case study with 241 nurses. The reliability of the scale was also tested through 15-day interval test-retest reliability by Intra Class Correlation Coefficient (ICC). Then the Minimum Detectable Changes (MDC) and MDC % was calculated. The results showed that the three dimensions (occupational, psychosocial and individual), consisted of 40 items, predict LBP occurrence. Both the scale and the three sub-scales could differentiate known groups of nurses in terms of LBP. These groups were nurses: with/without LBP during the past 12 years, with a high/low occurrence of LBP, with/without co-morbidity, being female/male, with/without night shift, and with high/low repetition of loads/patients handling. The average measure ICC of the scale was 0.866 (P <0.001). The MDC95 (MDC %) was 14.86 (15.65 %). We concluded that the proposed scale is a simple and trustworthy tool which supports the multidimensional nature of LBP.

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Jafari, M. J., Doshman Fana Yazdi, F., Mehrabi, Y., Rakhshanderou, S., & Saremi, M. (2019). Development and validation of a new scale for prediction of low back pain occurrence among nurses. EXCLI Journal, 18, 277-286.
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