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Differential expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been implicated in leukemogenesis. We investigate the expression pattern of miR-196b. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), we detected the expression of miR-196b and its correlated genes (SMC1A/MLH1) in initial pediatric AML. A significant association was observed between overexpression of miR-196b and inferior overall survival of pediatric AML (Log Rank P<0.0001). AML M4/5 subtype, high white blood cell (WBC) count at presentation, MLL rearrangement, or FLT3-ITD mutation at diagnosis and non-remission group after the first induction chemotherapy possessed higher miR-196b expression. Furthermore, a positive relationship was found between the expression of miR-196b and SMC1A/MLH1 (Spearman's r=0.37 and 0.44, P=0.001 and <0.0001, respectively). Taken together, these findings suggest that differentially high expression of miR-196b in diagnostic marrow samples of pediatric AML is associated with unfavorable outcome, and miR-196b potentially can be a novel biomarker for the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment in pediatric AML.
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