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The immunomodulatory properties of type 2 diabetic patients’ adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (D-ASCs) has not been extensively studied. In this study, we compared the immunomodulatory properties of D-ASCs and non-diabetic subjects mesenchymal stem cells (ND-ASCs) in co-culture with mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR). ASCs were isolated from adipose tissue samples of type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-55). D-ASCs and ND-ASCs were co-cultured with two-way MLR. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) proliferation ratio, protein levels of IFN-γ and IL-10, mRNA expression of COX-2, TNF-α, TGF-β1 and IL-6 genes in MLR, D-ASCs and ND-ASCs co-cultures were assessed using XTT, ELISA and Real-time qRT-PCR, respectively. PBMCs proliferation on days 2 and 4 of D-ASCs co-culture was higher than ND-ASCs co-culture of the same days (p < 0.001). IFN-γ level decreased on day 4 compared to day 2 of ND-ASCs co-culture, but its level had not changed in D-ASCs co-culture. COX-2 expression on days 2 and 4 of D-ASCs co-culture was lower than ND-ASCs co-culture of the same days (p < 0.05). The expression of TNF-α and IL-6 on days 2 and 4 of D-ASCs co-culture were higher than ND-ASCs co-culture of the same days (p < 0.001). TGF-β1 on day 4 of ND-ASCs co-culture showed a slightly higher expression than D-ASCs co-culture of the same day. Lower suppression of PBMCs proliferation, declined expression of anti-inflammatory and upregulated expression of pro-inflammatory factors in D-ASCs co-culture, indicated an impairment of these cells in modulation of the inflammatory condition.
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