Anacardium microcarpum extract and fractions protect against paraquat-induced toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster
Keywords:cajuí, Drosophila melanogaster, antioxidant, neuroprotection, herbicide
Anacardium microcarpum Ducke (Anacardiaceae) is a native species of Brazil used in folk medicine for the treatment of several illnesses although its antioxidant activity has been reported in vitro, there is no evidence of this effect in an in vivo model. Here, we investigated the potential protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract (AMHE), methanol (AMMF) and acetate (AMAF) fraction of A. microcarpum against paraquat toxicity on survivorship, locomotor performance, antioxidant enzymes activity and reactive species using Drosophila melanogaster. Flies were exposed to the extract or fractions (1 and 10 mg/ml) in the presence or absence of paraquat (5 mM) in sucrose solution for 72 h. In addition, total phenolic content of extract and fractions was evaluated as well as ABTS radical scavenging capacity. Our results demonstrated that AMAF presented higher content of phenols and ABTS chelating potential. Treatment of flies with the extract or fractions did not alter the survivorship, locomotor ability, and acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity per se. Paraquat caused 85 % mortality of flies and 30 % increase in reactive species generation, which were significantly attenuated by AMHE and AMMF. AAMF increased catalase activity (from 66.77 ± 6.64 to 223.94 ± 25.92 mU/mg of protein), while AMAF increased GST activity (from 477.76 ± 92 to 770.19 ± 147.92 mU/mg of protein) and catalase activity (from 66.77 ± 6.64 to 220.54 ± 26.63 mU/mg of protein). AMHE and AMMF were more effective in protecting against paraquat toxicity. Taken together, the data indicate the potential of this plant in acting as a protective and antioxidant agent in vivo.
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