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Multiple studies have revealed that the long non-coding RNA RPPH1 (Ribonuclease P RNA Component H1) is involved in disease progression of solid tumors and neurodegenerative diseases. We aimed to explore the functions of RPPH1 in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and the underlying molecular mechanisms. The expression of RPPH1 was examined in blood samples of AML patients and human AML cell lines including THP-1 and HL-60. The microRNAs (miRNAs) targets of RPPH1 were predicted with online tools and validated with the dual luciferase reporter assay. The malignant behaviors of AML cells with lentivirus medicated knockdown of RPPH1 and/or administration of miR-330-5p inhibitor were assessed. Cell proliferation was determined by the CCK-8 and EdU incorporation methods, and cell invasion and migration were assayed with transwell experiments. The effects of RPPH1 knockdown on in vivo tumor growth were evaluated in nude mice with xenografted THP-1 cells. RPPH1 was expressed in the AML tissues and cell lines and its high expression predicted worse overall survival in AML patients. miR-330-5p was validated to be a direct target of RPPH1. Knockdown of RPPH1 suppressed the proliferation, invasion and migration ability of human AML cells, which was partially reversed by additional administration with miR-330-5p inhibitor. RPPH1 knockdown significantly inhibited the growth of xenografted THP-1 tumor in nude mice. Our work highlights the contributions of RPPH1 in promoting AML progression through targeting miR-330-5p, and suggests that the RPPH1/miR-330-5p axis is a potential target for AML treatments.
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