Auraptene-induced cytotoxicity mechanisms in human malignant glioblastoma (U87) cells: role of reactive oxygen species (ROS)
Keywords:glioblastoma multiforme, auraptene, ROS, apoptosis
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), like the devastating type of astrocytic tumors, is one of the most challenging cancers to treat owing to its aggressive nature. Auraptene, as a prenyloxy coumarin from citrus species, represents antioxidant and antitumor activities; however, the underlying antitumor mechanisms of auraptene against GBM remain unclear. The present study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic and apoptogenic effects of auraptene, as a promising natural product, and the possible signaling pathways affected in human malignant GBM (U87) cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production significantly decreased in the first 2, and 6 hours after treatment with auraptene however, ROS levels increased in other incubation times (8 and 24 hours), dramatically. N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) markedly attenuated auraptene–induced ROS production, and consequently reversed auraptene–induced cytotoxicity in 8 and 24 hours after treatment, as well. Induction of apoptosis occurred in the first 24- and 48-hours concentration-dependently. The qRT-PCR showed an up-regulation in p21, CXCL3, and a down-regulation in Cyclin D1 genes expression. Western blot analysis confirmed the up-regulation of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio protein levels concentration-dependently. Hence, this study collectively revealed that the increase in ROS level is at least one of the mechanisms associated with auraptene-induced GBM cell toxicity as well as the induction of apoptosis through Bax/Bcl-2 modulation and genes expression involved that contribute to the cytotoxicity of auraptene in U87 cells. So, auraptene might be utilized as a potential novel anti-GBM agent after further studies.
How to Cite
Authors who publish in this journal agree to the following terms:
- The authors keep the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution license, CC BY 4.0. This licencse permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.
- The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, and so forth in this publication, even if not specifically identified, does not imply that these names are not protected by the relevant laws and regulations.
- Because the advice and information in this journal are believed to be true and accurate at the time of publication, neither the authors, the editors, nor the publisher accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions presented in the publication. The publisher makes no guarantee, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein.
- The authors can enter into additional contracts for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version by citing the initial publication in this journal (e.g. publishing in an institutional repository or in a book).