Involvement of haptoglobin phenotypes and genotypes in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer: A possible prognostic marker for risk stratification
Keywords:Haptoglobin, Acute-phase protein, Biomarkers, Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer, Electrophoresis
The association of haptoglobin (Hp) with various cancers has been reported and also it has been documented that the Hp phenotypes/genotypes have different functional ability. So, we examined phenotypes/genotypes of Hp in newly diagnosed, untreated non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients and investigated its prognostic value for risk stratification of the cancer. In eighty NMIBC patients and 80 healthy individuals the Hp genotypes and phenotypes were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE), respectively. Besides, the presence of the Hpα1, α2, and β chains in the sera was confirmed by Mass Spectrometry (MS). The frequencies of the 1-1 and 2-2 genotypes/phenotypes were respectively higher and lower in healthy subjects compared to the patients. Our results revealed that the 2-2 genotype/phenotype could increase the risk of NMIBC. There was a positive association between the 2-2 genotype/phenotype with the T category/grade of cancer (p<0.05). The present study implied a strong association between the Hp phenotypes and genotypes with NMIBC. It was found that the 2-2 genotype and phenotype could be a risk factor for NMIBC incidence, as well as, progression. This study introduced Hp genotyping as a possible cost-effective and precise method for prognosis of individuals at the risk of NMIBC.
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