In vitro and in vivo anticancer studies of 2'-hydroxy chalcone derivatives exhibit apoptosis in colon cancer cells by HDAC inhibition and cell cycle arrest
Keywords:chalcones, apoptosis, cell cycle, HDAC, DMH, colon cancer
Considering the therapeutic values of bioflavonoids in colon cancer treatment, six 2ʹ-hydroxy chalcones (C1-C6) were synthesized, characterized and screened for in vitro cytotoxicity on human colon carcinoma (HCT116) and African green monkey kidney epithelial cells (Vero). Only C5 showed selective cytotoxicity against HCT116 cells. Other potent cytotoxic compounds were C1, C2 and C3. Further screening included enzyme inhibition studies on histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzyme where C1 showed lowest IC50 value (105.03 µM). Based on cytotoxicity data C1, C2 and C3 were selected for further in vitro mechanistic studies, namely apoptotic studies (Acridine orange/Ethidium bromide (AO/EB) and Annexin V), cell cycle analysis using propidium iodide (PI) stain and in vivo anticancer efficacy in 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) induced colorectal carcinoma in Wistar rats. The compounds induced apoptosis in more than 30 % cells in AO/EB and Annexin V staining. They also showed cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase with PI staining. They showed a significant reduction in aberrant crypt foci formation and adenocarcinoma count along with a significant (p<0.05) reduction in TNF-α levels as compared to DMH control at 100 mg/kg dose. Thus, it can be concluded that the synthesized 2ʹ-hydroxychalcones were effective against colon adenocarcinoma in in vitro and in vivo studies.
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