Hygrophorus eburneus, edible mushroom, a promising natural bioactive agent
Keywords:Anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, edible mushroom, neuroprotective
It is known that many edible mushrooms have important medicinal properties, including effects on different types of cancers. This is the first report regarding the neuroprotective, antimicrobial, antioxidative and anticancer activities of the acetone extract of edible mushroom Hygrophorus eburneus. Neuroprotective potential was evaluated by measuring the capacity of the extract to inhibit acetylcholinesterase. In this assay, the tested extract showed activity against acetylcholinesterase in a dose-dependent manner where the percentage of inhibition ranged from 13.19 to 46.44 %. The antimicrobial potential was determined by the microdilution method against five species of bacteria and eight species of fungi and the results of this method exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity of H. eburneus with MIC values ranging from 6.25 to 25 mg/mL. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by measuring the scavenging capacity of the tested sample on DPPH and superoxide anion radicals, by the reducing power assay and by measuring the amounts of total phenolics in extract. As a result of the study, H. eburneus extract showed a potent antioxidant activity (IC50 were 102.93 μg/mL for DPPH radical scavenging activity and 123.27 μg/mL for superoxide anion radicals scavenging) while absorbances for reducing power assay were from 0.0235 to 0.1161. The total phenolic content in the extract was 9.27 µg PE/mg. Finally, anticancer effects were evaluated by MTT test for cytotoxicity, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining for detection of the type of cell death and wound healing assay for antimigratory effects on human colorectal cancer cell line (HCT-116) and human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231). The results for cytotoxicity and apoptosis were measured after 24 and 72 h and for anti-migratory effect after 12 and 24 h. The tested H. eburneus mushroom extract expressed cell selectivity, with notable cytotoxic effects observed on HCT-116 cells, with a strong proapoptotic potential. The migration of HCT-116 cells was significantly inhibited, while MDA-MB-231 cells were less sensitive to the treatment. The results of this study revealed that the tested extract had relatively strong neuroprotective, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer effects. It suggests that this mushroom can be proposed as a novel source of nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals.
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