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Tumor mutation burden (TMB) is associated with immunogenic responses and the survival of cancer patients. This study demonstrates how TMB levels impact the immune-related cells, genes, and miRNAs, and how miRNA/gene interactions respond to variations in the survival rate of patients with liver hepatocellular carcinoma (LIHC). LIHC patients were divided into two groups, either a low TMB (< median) or a high TMB (≥ median) group. We found that high TMB plays a positive role in immune-mediated infiltration, generating more CD4 T-cells and memory B cells. Among the 21 immune genes that altered significantly, only C9orf24 and CYP1A1 were expected to up-regulate in LIHC patients with high TMB. A total of 19 miRNAs, which regulate various functional pathways, were significantly altered in patients with LIHC. One of the miRNA/gene pair, hsa-miR-33a/ALDH1A3 was significantly associated with the survival rate of LIHC patients. Our results suggest that LIHC patients with high TMB can be treated more effectively with immunotherapy.
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