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Octyl gallate (OG) is an antioxidant commonly used in food, although there is no definition of its acceptable daily intake. There are reports in vitro and in vivo showing that food additives and drugs can alter lipid metabolism. Lipid droplet accumulation in hepatic cells is one of the main findings in the unregulated lipid metabolism and is strongly related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, we investigated the effects of OG on lipid metabolism in the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2). The results have shown, for the first time, that treatment with OG increased the overall amount of lipids, the triglyceride concentration, the lipid droplet area, and SREBP-1c and PPAR-γ gene expression. Taken together, the findings indicate that OG induces lipid droplet accumulation in HepG2 cells through the regulation of SREBP-1c and PPAR-γ gene expression without involving mTOR/S6K1 and may contribute to NAFLD when used as a food additive.
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