Roles of kininogen-1, basement membrane specific heparan sulfate proteoglycan core protein, and roundabout homolog 4 as potential urinary protein biomarkers in diabetic nephropathy
Keywords:diabetic nephropathy, urine, quantitative proteomics
Diabetic nephropathy, a major complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), is increasing worldwide and the large majority of patients have type 2 DM. Microalbuminuria has been used as a diagnostic marker of diabetic nephropathy. But owing to its insufficient sensitivity and specificity, other biomarkers are being sought. In addition, the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy is not fully understood and declines in renal function occur even without microalbuminuria. In this study, we investigated urinary proteins from three study groups (controls, and type 2 diabetic subjects with or without microalbuminuria). Non-targeted label-free Nano-LC QTOF analysis was conducted to discover underlying mechanisms and protein networks, and targeted label-free Nano-LC QTOF with SWATH was performed to qualify discovered protein candidates. Twenty-eight proteins were identified as candidates and functionally analyzed via String DB, gene ontology and pathway analysis. Four predictive mechanisms were analyzed: i) response to stimulus, ii) platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, iii) ECM-receptor interaction, and iv) angiogenesis. These mechanisms can provoke kidney dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients via endothelial cell damage and glomerulus structural alteration. Based on these analyses, three proteins (kininogen-1, basement membrane-specific heparan sulfate proteoglycan core protein, and roundabout homolog 4) were proposed for further study as potential biomarkers. Our findings provide insights that may improve methods for both prevention and diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Piyada Na Nakorn, Supitcha Pannengpetch, Patcharee Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya, Chadinee Thippakorn, Ratana Lawung, Nuankanya Sathirapongsasuti, Chagriya Kitiyakara, Piyamitr Sritara, Prin Vathesatogkit, Chartchalerm Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish in this journal agree to the following terms:
- The authors keep the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution license, CC BY 4.0. This licencse permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.
- The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, and so forth in this publication, even if not specifically identified, does not imply that these names are not protected by the relevant laws and regulations.
- Because the advice and information in this journal are believed to be true and accurate at the time of publication, neither the authors, the editors, nor the publisher accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions presented in the publication. The publisher makes no guarantee, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein.
- The authors can enter into additional contracts for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version by citing the initial publication in this journal (e.g. publishing in an institutional repository or in a book).