Cancer chemoprevention by oleaster (Elaeagnus angustifoli L.) fruit extract in a model of hepatocellular carcinoma induced by diethylnitrosamine in rats
Keywords:E. angustifolia, cancer prevention, carcinogenesis, liver cancer, Russian olive, wild olive
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a frequent and fatal human cancer with poor diagnosis that accounts for over half a million deaths each year worldwide. Elaeagnus angustifolia L. known as oleaster has a wide range of pharmacological activities. This study aimed to investigate the chemopreventive effect of aqueous extract of E. angustifolia fruit (AEA) against diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced HCC in rats. HCC was induced in rats by a single injection of DEN (200 mg/kg) as an initiator. After two weeks, rats were orally administered 2-acetylaminofluorene or 2-AAF (30 mg/kg) as a promoter for two weeks. Oleaster-treated rats were orally pretreated with the increasing doses of AEA two weeks prior to DEN injection that continued until the end of the experiment. In the current study, a significant decrease in serum biomarkers of liver damage and cancer, including alfa-fetoprotein (AFP), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alanine transaminase (ALT), and aspartate transaminase (AST) was observed in AEA-treated rats when compared to HCC rats. Furthermore, the oleaster extract exhibited in vivo antioxidant activity by elevating reduced glutathione (GSH) contents as well as preventing lipid peroxidation in the liver tissues of DEN-treated rats. The relative weight of liver, a prognostic marker of HCC, was also reduced in oleaster-treated rats. To conclude, our results clearly demonstrated that oleaster fruit possesses a significant chemopreventive effect against primary liver cancer induced by DEN in rats. It can be suggested that the preventive activity of oleaster against hepatocarcinogenesis may be mediated through the antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and antimutagenic effects of the fruit.
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