Review article - A review on biogenic synthesis, applications and toxicity aspects of zinc oxide nanoparticles

Main Article Content

Rajat Sharma
Rajni Garg
Avnesh Kumari

Abstract

Nanoparticles (NPs) have become an important field of research over the past several decades with applications in various sectors, such as biomedical, cosmetic, food and many others, because of their unique characteristics. The green synthesis of nanoparticles has been preferred because of the naturally occurring reductants present in biological systems that decreases exposure to toxic chemicals compared with physico-chemical methods and is eco-friendly. Zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs exhibit broad and potential applications in different fields with their specific characteristics such as surface area, size, shape, low toxicity, optical properties, high binding energy and large band gap. This paper focuses on the bio-synthesis of ZnO NPs by utilizing extracts of different plant parts (stem, flower, fruit, peel, and leaves) through efficient, economical, simple, pure, and eco-friendly green routes. In this process, zinc salts have been used as precursor and phytochemicals in the plant extract reduce the metal salt to lower oxidation state as well as stabilize the ZnO NPs. The morphological and physico-chemical properties of obtained NPs analyzed by various characterization techniques have been discoursed. Further, antimicrobial activity and potential photocatalytic application in terms of the degradation of dyes have also been reviewed in addition to the toxicity aspects of these NPs on human beings and animals.

Article Details

How to Cite
Sharma, R., Garg, R., & Kumari, A. (2020). Review article - A review on biogenic synthesis, applications and toxicity aspects of zinc oxide nanoparticles . EXCLI Journal, 19, 1325-1340. https://doi.org/10.17179/excli2020-2842
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Author Biographies

Rajat Sharma, Department of Chemistry, Rayat Bahra University, Mohali, Punjab, 140301, India

Research Scholar

Rajni Garg, Department of Chemistry, Rayat Bahra University, Mohali, Punjab, 140301, India. Tel.: +91-9463936099. E-mail: rajni.garg@rayatbahrauniversity.edu.in

Head, Department of Chemistry, Rayat Bahra University, Mohali, Punjab, India

Avnesh Kumari, Biotechnology Division, CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur, H.P., 176061, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology (CSIR-IHBT), Palampur, H.P., 176061, India

Sr. Technical Officer(2), Biotechnology Division, CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur, H.P., 176061
Assistant Professor, India and Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology (CSIR-IHBT), Palampur, H.P., 176061, India

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