Main Article Content
Nanoparticles (NPs) have become an important field of research over the past several decades with applications in various sectors, such as biomedical, cosmetic, food and many others, because of their unique characteristics. The green synthesis of nanoparticles has been preferred because of the naturally occurring reductants present in biological systems that decreases exposure to toxic chemicals compared with physico-chemical methods and is eco-friendly. Zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs exhibit broad and potential applications in different fields with their specific characteristics such as surface area, size, shape, low toxicity, optical properties, high binding energy and large band gap. This paper focuses on the bio-synthesis of ZnO NPs by utilizing extracts of different plant parts (stem, flower, fruit, peel, and leaves) through efficient, economical, simple, pure, and eco-friendly green routes. In this process, zinc salts have been used as precursor and phytochemicals in the plant extract reduce the metal salt to lower oxidation state as well as stabilize the ZnO NPs. The morphological and physico-chemical properties of obtained NPs analyzed by various characterization techniques have been discoursed. Further, antimicrobial activity and potential photocatalytic application in terms of the degradation of dyes have also been reviewed in addition to the toxicity aspects of these NPs on human beings and animals.
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