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Currently, stroke is a common and devastating condition, which is sometimes associated with permanent cerebral damages. Although in early time after stroke, the related treatments are mainly focused on the restoration of cerebral blood flow (CBF), at the same time, some changes are commencing that continue for a long time and need to be specially noticed. Previous studies have proposed several molecular mechanisms in these post-stroke events. Exosomes are a type of vesicle, which are formed and secreted by most cells as a mean to transfer cellular constituents such as proteins, DNA and/or RNA to distant cells. Therefore, they are considered as a novel mechanism of cellular communication. Herein, we reviewed the current knowledge on cascades, which are activated after stroke and consequently lead to the reorganization and/or continuance of tissue damage and development of other disorders such as Neurodegenerative diseases (ND). Thereafter, we summarized the latest proofs about the possible participation of exosomes in transferring some components such as proteins and micro-RNAs (miRs), from the affected areas to other parts of the brain and eventually cause the above-mentioned post-stroke events.
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