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The recent years have been passed with significant progressions in the utilization of microfluidic technologies for cellular investigations. The aim of microfluidics is to mimic small-scale body environment with features like optical transparency. Microfluidics can screen and monitor different cell types during culture and study cell function in response to stimuli in a fully controlled environment. No matter how the microfluidic environment is similar to in vivo environment, it is not possible to fully investigate stem cells behavior in response to stimuli during cell proliferation and differentiation. Researchers have used stem cells in different fields from fundamental researches to clinical applications. Many cells in the body possess particular functions, but stem cells do not have a specific task and can turn into almost any type of cells. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells with the ability of changing into specific cells that can be essential for the body. Researchers and physicians are interested in stem cells to use them in testing the function of the body’s systems and solving their complications. This review discusses the recent advances in utilizing microfluidic techniques for the analysis of stem cells, and mentions the advantages and disadvantages of using microfluidic technology for stem cell research.
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