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Genome editing technologies include techniques used for desired genetic modifications and allow the insertion, modification or deletion of specific DNA fragments. Recent advances in genome biology offer unprecedented promise for interdisciplinary collaboration and applications in gene editing. New genome editing technologies enable specific and efficient genome modifications. The sources that inspire these modifications and already exist in the genome are DNA degradation enzymes and DNA repair pathways. Six of these recent technologies are the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), leveraging endogenous ADAR for programmable editing of RNA (LEAPER), recruiting endogenous ADAR to specific transcripts for oligonucleotide-mediated RNA editing (RESTORE), chemistry-based artificial restriction DNA cutter (ARCUT), single homology arm donor mediated intron-targeting integration (SATI), RNA editing for specific C-to-U exchange (RESCUE). These technologies are widely used from various biomedical researches to clinics, agriculture, and allow you to rearrange genomic sequences, create cell lines and animal models to solve human diseases. This review emphasizes the characteristics, superiority, limitations, also whether each technology can be used in different biological systems and the potential application of these systems in the treatment of several human diseases.
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