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As a novel cause of pneumonia, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly progressed worldwide. Previous studies have indicated COVID-19 patients with diabetes show higher mortality rates and more severe COVID-19 infection with an increased requirement for intensive care and hospital length of stay (LOS) compared to non-diabetic patients. The present study aimed to investigate the association of diabetes and COVID-19 outcome with severity of disease in hospitalized patients. The present case-control study included 268 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 who were hospitalized in Ayatollah Khoyi Hospital, Khoy, Iran. Diabetes was identified based on medical history and/or criteria of published documents. Out of 268 patients (median age of 59 years; 53.4 % male), 127 patients had diabetes (47 %). Diabetic patients had remarkably higher mortality rates (adjusted odds ratio, aOR: 3.36; confidence interval, CI: 1.17–9.66), requirement for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) (aOR: 4.59; CI: 1.38–15.25), and LOS (aOR: 1.13; CI: 1.06–1.24) compared to patients without diabetes. Inflammatory biomarkers including C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were increased in patients with diabetes compared to non-diabetic patients (P < 0.05 for all the comparisons). In hospitalized patients with COVID-19, diabetes was correlated with increased disease severity and mortality.
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