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Inflammation caused by the excessive production of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines in abnormally activated macrophages promotes the initiation and progression of many diseases along with oxidative stress. Previous studies have suggested that nargenicin A1, an antibacterial macrolide isolated from Nocardia sp. may be a potential treatment for inflammatory responses and oxidative stress, but the detailed mechanisms are still not well studied. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of nargenicin A1 on inflammatory and oxidative stress in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages and zebrafish (Danio rerio) models. Our results indicated that nargenicin A1 treatment significantly inhibited LPS-induced release of pro-inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2, which was associated with decreased inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. In addition, nargenicin A1 attenuated the LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1, reducing their extracellular secretion. Nargenicin A1 also suppressed LPS-induced generation of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, nargenicin A1 abolished the LPS-mediated nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and the degradation of inhibitor IκB-α, indicating that nargenicin A1 exhibited anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway. Furthermore, nargenicin A1 showed strong protective effects against NO and ROS production in LPS-injected zebrafish larvae. In conclusion, our findings suggest that nargenicin A1 ameliorates LPS-induced anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects by downregulating the NF-κB signaling pathway, and that nargenicin A1 can be a potential functional agent to prevent inflammatory- and oxidative-mediated damage.
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