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Coriandrum sativum Linn. (family: Umbelliferae; C. sativum), is a potential herb widely used as a spice and traditional medicine. In the present work, the effects of C. sativum fruit extract (CSE), against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglia-mediated neuroinflammation in vitro and 1-methyl-4 phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinson’s disease (PD) animal model in vivo was investigated. LPS-stimulated increase in nitric oxide (NO), inducible NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were significantly (p < 0.05 ~ p < 0.001) inhibited by CSE (25, 50 and 100 μg/mL) in BV-2 microglial cells. Further, CSE inhibited the LPS-induced nuclear factor of kappa-beta activation and IκB-α phosphorylation in BV-2 microglia. In vivo studies, CSE (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg) ameliorated the MPTP (25 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced changes in locomotor, cognitive and behavior functions evaluated by rotarod, passive avoidance and open field test significantly (p < 0.05 ~ p < 0.001). The MPTP-induced changes in brain oxidative enzyme levels such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and lipid peroxidation were significantly (p < 0.01 and p <0.001 at 200 and 300 mg/kg, respectively) restored with CSE treatment. High-performance thin-layer chromatography fingerprinting analysis of CSE exhibited several distinctive peaks with quercetin and kaempferol-3O-glucoside as identifiable compounds. In conclusion, our study indicated that CSE attenuated neuroinflammatory processes in LPS-stimulated microglia in vitro and restored the MPTP-induced behavioral deficits and brain oxidative enzyme status in vivo proving its therapeutic potential in the treatment of neuroinflammatory and oxidative stress-mediated neurodegeneration seen in PD.
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