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Thyroid cancers (TCs) are the most prevalent malignancy of the endocrine system and the seventh most common cancer in women. According to estimates from the Global Cancer Observatory (GCO) in 2020, the incidence of thyroid cancer globally was 586,000 cases. As thyroid cancer incidences have dramatically increased, identifying the most important metabolic pathways and biochemical markers involved in thyroid tumorigenesis can be critical strategies for controlling the prevalence and ultimately treatment of this disease. Cancer cells undergo cellular metabolism and energy alteration in order to promote cell proliferation and invasion. Glutamine is one of the most abundant free amino acids in the human body that contributes to cancer metabolic remodeling as a carbon and nitrogen source to sustain cell growth and proliferation. In the present review, glutamine metabolism and its regulation in cancer cells are highlighted. Thereafter, emphasis is given to the perturbation of glutamine metabolism in thyroid cancer, focusing on metabolomics studies.
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