Prognostic significance and therapeutic potentials of immune checkpoints in osteosarcoma
Keywords:immune checkpoints, osteosarcoma, therapeutic potentials
Although there exist manifold strategies for cancer treatment, researchers are obliged to develop novel treatments based on the challenges that arise. One of these recent treatment approaches is cancer immunotherapy, which enjoys various types of strategies itself. However, one of the most significant methods, in this regard, is employing immune checkpoint proteins (ICPs). Bone sarcomas have several subtypes, with the most common ones being chordoma, chondrosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, and osteosarcoma. Although many aggressive treatment approaches, including radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and surgical resection, have been employed over the last decades, significantly improved outcomes have not been observed for Ewing sarcoma or osteosarcoma patients. Additionally, chordoma and chdrosarcoma resist against both radiation and chemotherapy. Accordingly, elucidating how recent therapies could affect bone sarcomas is necessary. Checkpoint inhibitors have attracted great attention for the treatment of several cancer types, including bone sarcoma. Herein, the recent advances of current immune checkpoint targets, such as anti-PD-1/PD-L1 and anti-CTLA-4 blockade, for the treatment of bone sarcoma have been reviewed.
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Copyright (c) 2022 Vafa Meftahpour, Ali Aghebati-Maleki, Ali Fotouhi, Elham Safarzadeh, Leili Aghebati-Maleki
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