Design, synthesis, characterization and computational docking studies of novel sulfonamide derivatives
Keywords:sulfonamide, derivatives, synthesis, antimicrobial, activity, structure
This study reports three novel sulfonamide derivatives 4-Chloro-N-[(4-methylphenyl) sulphonyl]-N-propyl benzamide (1A), N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-4-methyl benzene sulfonamide (1B) and 4-methyl-N-(2-nitrophenyl) benzene sulfonamide (1C). The compounds were synthesised from starting material 4-methylbenzenesulfonyl chloride and their structure was studied through 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectra. Computational docking was performed to estimate their binding energy against bacterial p-amino benzoic acid (PABA) receptor, the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS). The derivatives were tested in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against Gram+ and Gram- bacteria including E. coli, B. subtilis, B. licheniformis and B. linen. 1A was found active only against B. linen; 1B was effective against E. coli, B. subtilis and B. linen whereas 1C showed activity against E. coli, B. licheniformis and B. linen. 1C showed maximum activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 50, 100 and 150 µg/mL against E. coli, B. licheniformis and B. linen respectively. 1C exhibited maximum affinity to DHPS with binding free energy of -8.1 kcal/mol. It enriched in the top 0.5 % of a library of 7663 compounds, ranked in order of their binding affinity against DHPS. 1C was followed by 1B which showed a moderate to low level MIC of 100, 250 and 150 µg/mL against E. coli, B. subtilis and B. linen respectively, whereas 1A showed a moderate level MIC of 100 µg/mL but only against B. linen. These derivatives may thus serve as potential anti-bacterial alternatives against resistant pathogens.
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