Helicobacter pylori infection and lactose intolerance increase expiratory hydrogen
Keywords:irritable bowel syndrome, lactose intolerance, histamine intolerance, diamine oxidase, fructose malabsorption
Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) may cause dyspepsia and/or unexplained functional nonspecific, gastrointestinal complaints of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) spectrum. Hitherto, in H. pylori infected patients with symptoms of the IBS spectrum the occurrence of additional food intolerance/malabsorption is not evaluated. We used a retrospective analysis of charts from 548 patients who presented with gastrointestinal complaints of the irritable bowel syndrome spectrum. An enzyme-linked IgA immunosorbent assay or histologic evaluation of gastric mucosa were used to detect H. pylori infection. A hydrogen breath (H2) test was performed to evaluate fructose malabsorption (FM) and lactose intolerance (LIT). Serum diamine oxidase value of <10 U/ml and a response to a histamine-reduced diet was used to identify histamine intolerance (HIT). We found 293 patients infected with H. pylori, within these were 58 H. pylori patients with LIT, 23 H. pylori LIT patients with FM and 46 H. pylori LIT patients with HIT. Additionally, 13 H. pylori, lactose- and histamine intolerance patients also had FM. The Kruskal Wallis test and pairwise comparison were used to analyze differences of the area under the curve of expiratory hydrogen. In lactose H2 breath tests compared with LIT-only patients, LIT with H. pylori, LIT and H. pylori with HIT, LIT and H. pylori with FM showed significantly higher exhaled H2 levels (p=0.022). Pairwise comparison demonstrated H. pylori infected patients with LIT exhaled more H2 compared to LIT-only (p=0.029). H. pylori with lactose- and histamine intolerance, and H. pylori with lactose-, histamine intolerance and FM compared to H. pylori-only patients indicated a significantly higher occurrence of stomach pain during lactose H2 breath tests (p=0.012 and p=0.005, respectively). We demonstrate that LIT patients with high expiratory H2 levels in lactose breath tests may have H. pylori infection and possibly additional food intolerance/malabsorption. Subsequently, besides H. pylori eradication, a dietician is necessary for an individually tailored reduction- or exclusion diet of symptom triggering food components.
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Copyright (c) 2022 Wolfgang J. Schnedl, Nathalie Meier-Allard, Michael Schenk, Sonja Lackner, Dietmar Enko, Harald Mangge, Sandra J. Holasek
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