Systems redox biology in health and disease
Keywords:Integrated physiology, systems medicine, oxidative stress, hydrogen sulfide, redox signaling, nutrition
Living organisms need to be able to cope with environmental challenges and other stressors and mount adequate responses that are as varied as the spectrum of those challenges. Understanding how the multi-layered biological stress responses become integrated across and between different levels of organization within an organism can provide a different perspective on the nature and inter-relationship of complex systems in health and disease. We here compare two concepts which have been very influential in stress research: Selye’s ‘General Adaptation Syndrome’ and Sies’s ‘Oxidative Stress’ paradigm. We show that both can be embraced within a more general framework of ‘change and response’. The ‘Reactive Species Interactome’ allows each of these to be considered as distinct but complementary aspects of the same system, representative of roles at different levels of organization within a functional hierarchy. The versatile chemistry of sulfur - exemplified by hydrogen sulfide, glutathione and proteinous cysteine thiols - enriched by its interactions with reactive oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur species, would seem to sit at the heart of the ‘Redox Code’ and underpin the ability of complex organisms to cope with stress.
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Copyright (c) 2022 Martin Feelisch, Miriam M. Cortese-Krott, Jerome Santolini, Stephen A. Wootton, Alan A. Jackson
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