Cytotoxic capability and the associated proteomic profile of cell-free coelomic fluid extracts from the edible sea cucumber Holothuria tubulosa on HepG2 liver cancer cells
Keywords:hepatocellular carcinoma, invertebrate, echinoderm, cell behavior, protein profile
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive cancer histotype and one of the most common types of cancer worldwide. The identification of compounds that might intervene to restrain neoplastic cell growth appears imperative due to its elevated overall mortality. The marine environment represents a reservoir rich in bioactive compounds in terms of primary and secondary metabolites produced by aquatic animals, mainly invertebrates. In the present study, we determined whether the water-soluble cell-free extract of the coelomic fluid (CFE) of the edible sea cucumber Holothuria tubulosa could play an anti-HCC role in vitro by analyzing the viability and locomotory behavior, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis and autophagy modulation, mitochondrial function and cell redox state of HepG2 HCC cells. We showed that CFE causes an early block in the cell cycle at the G2/M phase, which is coupled to oxidative stress promotion, autophagosome depletion and mitochondrial dysfunction ultimately leading to apoptotic death. We also performed a proteomic analysis of CFE identifying a number of proteins that are seemingly responsible for anti-cancer effects. In conclusion, H. tubulosa’s CFE merits further investigation to develop novel promising anti-HCC prevention and/or treatment agents and also beneficial supplements for formulation of functional foods and food packaging material.
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Copyright (c) 2022 Claudio Luparello, Rossella Branni, Giulia Abruscato, Valentina Lazzara, Laszlo Drahos, Vincenzo Arizza, Manuela Mauro, Vita Di Stefano, Mirella Vazzana
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