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Little is known about biogenically synthesized Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) from Isodon rugosus. Synthesis of metal oxide NPs from essential oil producing medicinal plants results in less harmful side effects to the human population as compared to chemically synthesized NPs. In this article, we report biogenic synthesis of ZnONPs from in vitro derived plantlets and thidiazuron (TDZ) induced callus culture of Isodon rugosus. Synthesized NPs were characterized using UV-spectra, XRD, FTIR, SEM and EDX. Furthermore, the NPs were evaluated for their potential cytotoxic (against HepG2 cell line) and antimicrobial (against drug resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) activities. Pure crystalline ZnONPs with hexagonal and triangular shapes were obtained as a result of callus extract (CE) and whole plant extract (WPE), respectively. ZnONPs showed potent cytotoxic and antimicrobial potential. The antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of ZnONPs were found to be shape and surface bound phytochemicals dependent. CE mediated hexagonal ZnONPs showed superior anti-cancer and antimicrobial activities as compared to WPE mediated triangular shaped ZnONPs. It is concluded that biogenic ZnONPs have incredible potential as theranostic agents and can be adopted as useful drug delivery system in next generation treatment strategies.
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