COVID-19 and its genomic variants

Molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic interventions

Authors

  • Pulak R. Manna Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, School of Medicine, Lubbock, TX 79430, USA, Tel: +1-806-743-3573, Fax: +1-806-743-3143, E-mail: pulak.manna@ttuhsc.edu https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4292-4001
  • Zackery C. Gray Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, School of Medicine, Lubbock, TX 79430, USA https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2096-5016
  • Malabika Sikdar Department of Zoology, Dr. Hari Singh Gour Vishwavidyalaya, Sagar, MP 470003, India https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0106-2663
  • P. Hemachandra Reddy Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, School of Medicine, Lubbock, TX 79430, USA; Department of Pharmacology and Neuroscience, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX 79430, USA; Neurology, Departments of School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX 79430, USA; Public Health Department of the Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX 79430, USA; Department of Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences, School Health Professions, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX 79430, USA; Nutritional Sciences Department, College of Human Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9560-9948

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17179/exli2022-5315

Keywords:

COVID-19 and its variants, pathogenesis, healthy immunity, lifestyle, immunocompromised conditions, therapeutics

Abstract

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), caused by a β-coronavirus and its genomic variants, is associated with substantial morbidities and mortalities globally. The COVID-19 virus and its genomic variants enter host cells upon binding to the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptors that are expressed in a variety of tissues, but predominantly in the lungs, heart, and blood vessels. Patients afflicted with COVID-19 may be asymptomatic or present with critical symptoms possibly due to diverse lifestyles, immune responses, aging, and underlying medical conditions. Geriatric populations, especially men in comparison to women, with immunocompromised conditions, are most vulnerable to severe COVID-19 associated infections, complications, and mortalities. Notably, whereas immunomodulation, involving nutritional consumption, is essential to protecting an individual from COVID-19, immunosuppression is detrimental to a person with this aggressive disease. As such, immune health is inversely correlated to COVID-19 severity and resulting consequences. Advances in genomic and proteomic technologies have helped us to understand the molecular events underlying symptomatology, transmission and, pathogenesis of COVID-19 and its genomic variants. Accordingly, there has been development of a variety of therapeutic interventions, ranging from mask wearing to vaccination to medication. This review summarizes the current understanding of molecular pathogenesis of COVID-19, effects of comorbidities on COVID-19, and prospective therapeutic strategies for the prevention and treatment of this contagious disease.

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Published

2022-09-13

How to Cite

Manna, P. R., Gray, Z. C., Sikdar, M., & Reddy, P. H. (2022). COVID-19 and its genomic variants: Molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic interventions. EXCLI Journal, 21, 1196–1221. https://doi.org/10.17179/exli2022-5315

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Review articles

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