Unraveling CD69 signaling pathways, ligands and laterally associated molecules
Keywords:CD69, CD69-ligands, CD69-signaling, molecular signaling-pathway
CD69 is an early leukocyte activation marker involved in the regulation of the immune response. Initial in vitro studies evaluated its function using monoclonal antibodies until knock-out mice were developed. Subsequently, four ligands for CD69 have been identified, namely galectin-1, S100A8/S100A9 complex, myosin light chains 9 and 12, and oxidized low-density lipoproteins. In addition, several molecules are laterally associated with and regulated by CD69, including calreticulin and two transmembrane receptors, sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor (S1P1) and the heterodimeric amino acid transporter complex SLC7A5-SLC3A2 (LAT1-CD98). Recently, CD69 engagement has been shown to induce the expression of the immunoregulatory receptor programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) in T cells. The molecular signaling induced by CD69 has been explored in different scenarios and cell types. This review provides a perspective on the molecular pathways, ligands and cellular functions known to be regulated by CD69.
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Copyright (c) 2023 Maria Jimenez-Fernandez, Hortensia de la Fuente, Pilar Martin, Danay Cibrián, Francisco Sánchez-Madrid
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