Molecular alterations of driver genes in non-small cell lung cancer
from diagnostics to targeted therapy
Keywords:non-small cell lung cancer, driver genes, molecular alterations, targeted therapies
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death all over the world. The majority (80-85 %) of lung cancer cases are classified as non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Within NSCLC, adenocarcinoma (AC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are the most often recognized. The histological and immunohistochemical examination of NSCLC is a basic diagnostic tool, but insufficient for comprehensive therapeutic decisions. In some NSCLC patients, mainly adenocarcinoma, molecular alterations in driver genes, like EGFR, KRAS, HER2, ALK, MET, BRAF, RET, ROS1, and NTRK are recognized. The frequency of some of those changes is different depending on race, and between smokers and non-smokers. The molecular diagnostics of NSCLC using modern methods, like next-generation sequencing, is essential in estimating targeted, personalized therapy. In recent years, a breakthrough in understanding the importance of molecular studies for the precise treatment of NSCLC has been observed. Many new drugs were approved, including tyrosine kinase and immune checkpoint inhibitors. Clinical trials testing novel molecules like miRNAs and trials with CAR-T cells (chimeric antigen receptor – T cells) dedicated to NSCLC patients are ongoing.
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Copyright (c) 2023 Anna Grodzka, Agnieszka Knopik-Skrocka, Katarzyna Kowalska, Paweł Kurzawa, Monika Krzyżaniak, Katarzyna Stencel, Maciej Bryl
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