Intraperitoneal hepato-renal toxicity of zinc oxide and nickel oxide nanoparticles in male rats
biochemical, hematological and histopathological studies
Keywords:nanoparticles, zinc oxide, nickel oxide, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, intraperitoneal route
In recent years, zinc oxide (ZnO) and nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles (NPs) have become more prevalent in commercial and industrial products. However, questions have been raised regarding their potential harm to human health. Limited studies have been conducted on their intraperitoneal toxicity in rats, and their co-exposure effects remain uncertain. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate some biological responses induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of ZnO-NPs (200 mg/kg) and/or NiO-NPs (50 mg/kg) in rats over time intervals. Blood and organ samples were collected from 36 male rats for hematological, biochemical, oxidative stress, and histological analysis. Results showed that the administration of NPs reduced the body and organ weights as well as red blood cell (RBC) indices and altered white blood cell (WBC) and platelet (PLT) counts. The experimental groups exhibited elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), creatinine (CREA), urea, lipid profile, glucose (GLU), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and decreased uric acid (UA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GSH). Histological observations also revealed architectural damages in liver and kidneys. These alterations were time-dependent and varied in their degree of toxicity. Co-exposure of NPs initially lessened the damage but increased it afterwards compared to individual exposure. In conclusion, intraperitoneal injection of ZnO-NPs and/or NiO-NPs alters biological processes and induces oxidative stress in rats’ liver and kidneys in a time-dependent manner, with NiO-NPs being more potent than ZnO-NPs. Furthermore, co-exposed NPs initially appeared to be antagonistic to one another while further aiming toward synergism.
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Copyright (c) 2023 Noura S. Abouzeinab, Nour Kahil, Najla Fakhruddin, Ramadan Awad, Mahmoud I. Khalil
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