Structural and molecular characterization of lopinavir and ivermectin as breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) inhibitors
Keywords:ABCG2, drug repositioning, lopinavir, ivermectin, molecular modelling
A current clinical challenge in cancer is multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by ABC transporters. Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) or ABCG2 transporter is one of the most important ABC transporters implicated in MDR and the use of inhibitors is a promising approach to overcome the resistance in cancer. This study aimed to characterize the molecular mechanism of ABCG2 inhibitors identified by a repurposing drug strategy using antiviral, anti-inflammatory and antiparasitic agents. Lopinavir and ivermectin can be considered as pan-inhibitors of ABC transporters, since both compounds inhibited ABCG2, P-glycoprotein and MRP1. They inhibited ABCG2 activity showing IC50 values of 25.5 and 23.4 µM, respectively. These drugs were highly cytotoxic and not transported by ABCG2. Additionally, these drugs increased the 5D3 antibody binding and did not affect the mRNA and protein expression levels. Cell-based analysis of the type of inhibition suggested a non-competitive inhibition, which was further corroborated by in silico approaches of molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations. These results showed an overlap of the lopinavir and ivermectin binding sites on ABCG2, mainly interacting with E446 residue. However, the substrate mitoxantrone occupies a different site, binding to the F436 region, closer to the L554/L555 plug. In conclusion, these results revealed the mechanistic basis of lopinavir and ivermectin interaction with ABCG2.
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Copyright (c) 2023 Julia de Paula Dutra, Gustavo Scheiffer, Thales Kronenberger, Lucas Julian Cruz Gomes, Isadora Zanzarini, Kelly Karoline dos Santos, Arun K. Tonduru, Antti Poso, Fabiane Gomes de Moraes Rego, Geraldo Picheth, Glaucio Valdameri, Vivian Rotuno Moure
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