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Primary hepatitis C virus infection might be spontaneously cleared or become chronic. Polymorphisms in immune regulatory genes might influence the outcome. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of genotypes and alleles of PD-1.3 and PD-1.5 gene loci in HCV infected patients and their association with the disease outcome. In this study 167 patients with chronic hepatic C and 42 individuals whose infection was spontaneously cleared, and a healthy control group comprising of 300 participants were included. The presence of chronic or spontaneously cleared infection amongst the participants was determined in advance by serologic and molecular methods. Genomic DNA was extracted using salting out method. PD-1 gene polymorphisms assay was performed using PCR-RFLP method. The frequency of alleles of PD-1.3 gene locus was significantly higher in the spontaneously cleared HCV infected group (P = 0.03) as well as the healthy control group (P = 0.04) in comparison to the chronic infected participants. In the case of PD-1.5 locus, there was no association between the frequency of inherited genotype or alleles and HCV infection outcome amongst the three groups. Haplotype analysis showed no statistically significant differences in the frequencies of different haplotypes between the three studied groups. Our finding collectively inferred that individuals with A allele at PD-1.3 locus might clear HCV infection more frequently than those with T allele. Instead, polymorphisms at PD-1.5 locus as well as haplotypes emerged from PD-1.3 G/A and PD-1.5 C/T might not be significant in the HCV infection outcome.
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