Main Article Content
Pesticides are known for their high persistence and pervasiveness in the environment, and along with products of their biotransformation, they may remain in and interact with the environment and living organisms in multiple ways, according to their nature and chemical structure, dose and targets. In this review, the classifications of pesticides based on their nature, use, physical state, pathophysiological effects, and sources are discussed. The effects of these xenobiotics on the environment, their biotransformation in terms of bioaccumulation are highlighted with special focus on the molecular mechanisms deciphered to date. Basing on targeted organisms, most pesticides are classified as herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides. Herbicides are known as growth regulators, seedling growth inhibitors, photosynthesis inhibitors, inhibitors of amino acid and lipid biosynthesis, cell membrane disrupters, and pigment biosynthesis inhibitors, whereas fungicides include inhibitors of ergosterol biosynthesis, protein biosynthesis, and mitochondrial respiration. Insecticides mainly affect nerves and muscle, growth and development, and energy production. Studying the impact of pesticides and other related chemicals is of great interest to animal and human health risk assessment processes since potentially everyone can be exposed to these compounds which may cause many diseases, including metabolic syndrome, malnutrition, atherosclerosis, inflammation, pathogen invasion, nerve injury, and susceptibility to infectious diseases. Future studies should be directed to investigate influence of long term effects of low pesticide doses and to minimize or eliminate influence of pesticides on non-target living organisms, produce more specific pesticides and using modern technologies to decrease contamination of food and other goods by pesticides.
Authors who publish in this journal agree to the following terms:
- The authors keep the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution license, CC BY 4.0. This licencse permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.
- The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, and so forth in this publication, even if not specifically identified, does not imply that these names are not protected by the relevant laws and regulations.
- Because the advice and information in this journal are believed to be true and accurate at the time of publication, neither the authors, the editors, nor the publisher accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions presented in the publication. The publisher makes no guarantee, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein.
- The authors can enter into additional contracts for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version by citing the initial publication in this journal (e.g. publishing in an institutional repository or in a book).