EXCLI Journal 2021-01-23T21:12:47+01:00 EXCLI Journal Open Journal Systems <center><img class="img-responsive" src="/public/site/images/lindemann/Lucida_logo_neu_geschrieben.PNG" alt="EXCLI Journal Logo"></center> <p>EXCLI Journal publishes original research reports, authoritative reviews and case reports of experimental and clinical sciences.</p> <div class="toggleBox"><input id="toggleContent" name="toggleContent" type="checkbox"> <label class="open" for="toggleContent">More...</label> <label class="close" for="toggleContent">Less...</label> <div> <p><strong>EXCLI Journal </strong>(eISSN 1611-2156)&nbsp;is particularly keen to keep a broad view of science and technology, and therefore welcomes papers which bridge disciplines and may not suit the narrow specialism of other journals. Although the general emphasis is on biological sciences, studies from the following fields are explicitly encouraged:</p> <p>Immunology, toxicology, ergonomics, neurosciences, psychology, occupational medicine, clinical and preclinical studies, drug development, pharmacology, environmental health, chemistry including analytical chemistry, biochemistry, cell biology, genetics, forensic medicine, oncology and cancer research, proteomics, systems biology, hepatology and gastroenterology, aging research, psychiatric research, behavioral sciences.</p> </div> </div> Incidence Investigation of Accidents in Chemical Industries: A Comprehensive Study based on Factor Analysis 2021-01-23T21:12:47+01:00 Ahmad Soltanzadeh Mohsen Sadeghi Yarandi Shahram Arsang-Jang Mohsen Mahdinia Heidar mohammadi <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Modelling and analysing accidents in chemical process industries (through the path of accident analysis) can contribute to designing safety programs for hazard prevention and control. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the incidence of chemical accidents.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> The present study was an analytical study that investigated 840 accidents in 42 chemical process industries over 11 years (2008-2018). Data analysis was conducted using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA &amp; CFA), and structural equation modelling (SEM). Data analysis was done using IBM SPSS AMOS v. 22. Moreover, χ2/df, RMSEA, CFI, NFI and NNFA (TLI) indices were used as model fit indices.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The descriptive results showed that 45.3% and 32.14% of the accidents were related to transportation and release of chemicals, respectively. Factor analysis showed that 6 latent factors and 37 indicator variables affected the accidents. SEM findings showed that latent factors including individual &amp; occupational, training, risk management and their indicator variables had indirect effects on the chemical accidents (p&lt;0.05), while unsafe conditions and unsafe acts latent factors with their indicator variables had direct effects on the incidence of chemical accidents (p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The findings confirmed that the chemical accidents are affected by different causal layers.</p> Copyright (c) The THE EFECT OF CIGARETTE SMOKE CANDENSATE ON MOUSE EMBERYO DEVELOPMENT AND EXPRESSION OF PLURIPOTENCY AND APOPTPTIC GENES IN VITRO 2021-01-23T19:53:06+01:00 fardin fathi <p>It has been reported that cigarette smoke has adverse effects on the reproductive process. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) &nbsp;on in vitro development of mouse embryo. Three thousand NMRI mice 2PN embryos were divided into six groups (n=500). The test group were exposed to 20, 40, 80, 160, and 320 μg/ml of CSC. In the control group, CSC was not added to the culture media during the development of 2PN embryos. In addition, the effects of 20 and 80 μg/ml of CSC on genes involved in pluripotency and apoptosis, and also, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor gene was assessed in the blastocysts. Our results showed that CSC had an adverse impact on the viability of mouse embryos at the concesntrations of 80, 160, and 320 μg/ml compared to the control group (P&lt;0.05). In contrast, it had positive effects on the viability of mouse embryos at the concesntrations of 20 and 40 μg/ml compared to the control group (P&lt;0.05). The 20 and 80 μg/ml concentrations of CSC increased the expressions of pluripotency, apoptotic, and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor genes in the blastocyst embryo stage compared to the control group (P&lt;0.05). It can be concluded that concesntrations higher than 40 μg/ml of cigarette smoke condensate have an adverse effect on mouse embryo development in the preimplantation stages. Also, 20 and 80 μg/ml concentrations of cigarette smoke condensate have a significant effect on the expression of pluripotency, apoptotic, and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor genes in the blastocyst embryo stage compared to the control group.</p> Copyright (c) Modulating effects of the synergistic combination on cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppressed mice 2021-01-23T11:45:31+01:00 Abida Parveen Sultan Zahiruddin Nidhi Agarwal Muhammad Akhtar Siddiqui Shahid Husain Ansari Sayeed Ahmad <p>OBJECTIVE: Taking leads from the available research, we aimed to develop a synergy-based herbal combination of <em>Tinospora cordifolia</em> (TC), <em>Phylanthus emblica </em>(PE)<em>, </em>and <em>Piper nigrum </em>(PN)<em>. </em>Also, evaluating their synergistic effect on CP-induced immunosuppression in mice model and exploring the possible mechanisms involved in reversing the damage.</p> <p>&nbsp;METHODOLOGY: The immunomodulatory activity of combination, of <em>Tinospora cordifolia</em> stem, <em>Phylanthus emblica </em>fruits,&nbsp; and <em>Piper nigrum</em> dried fruits, was determined by <em>in vitro</em> assays (splenocyte proliferation and pinocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages of mice) and <em>in vivo</em> study using CP-induced immunosuppression model in Swiss Albino mice. The ratio was optimized for combining three by <em>in vitro</em> spleen proliferation and pinocytic assay. The combination was further evaluated for anti-oxidant activity by DPPH scavenging method and quantified for its bioactive metabolites by HPTLC. Serum collected on day 0, 4, 7 and 14 was employed for estimation of haematogram (haematocrit, TLC, DLC, and haemoglobin, etc) and immune parameters (IL-10, IL-6 and TNF-α) by ELISA.</p> <p>RESULTS: The study demonstrated, that combination of herbal extracts at an intermediate dose could inhibit the proliferation of spleen cells and peritoneal macrophages (P≤0.0001) and induce suppression of pro-inflammatory mediators, and also certified that combination of three herbal extracts exert synergized effects. The results showed that the combination possess potential antioxidant activity by DPPH scavenging method (IC<sub>50</sub>-113.5µg/ml). It was identified that combination significantly (P≤0.0001) improved the immune markers, haematogram parameters, and histological parameters, with maximum protection offered by an intermediate dose. The synergy-based herbal combination possess promising immunomodulatory property by enhancing non-specific immunity, while repressing pro-inflammatory cytokines.</p> <p>CONCLUSION: The results suggested that synergy-based combination of TC, PE and PN in an intermediate dose could be further explored clinically as potent synergy-based therapeutic approach for immune modulation.</p> Copyright (c)