EXCLI Journal https://www.excli.de/index.php/excli <center><img class="img-responsive" src="/public/site/images/lindemann/Lucida_logo_neu_geschrieben.PNG" alt="EXCLI Journal Logo"></center> <p>EXCLI Journal publishes original research reports, authoritative reviews and case reports of experimental and clinical sciences.</p> <div class="toggleBox"><input id="toggleContent" name="toggleContent" type="checkbox"> <label class="open" for="toggleContent">More...</label> <label class="close" for="toggleContent">Less...</label> <div> <p><strong>EXCLI Journal </strong>(eISSN 1611-2156)&nbsp;is particularly keen to keep a broad view of science and technology, and therefore welcomes papers which bridge disciplines and may not suit the narrow specialism of other journals. Although the general emphasis is on biological sciences, studies from the following fields are explicitly encouraged:</p> <p>Immunology, toxicology, ergonomics, neurosciences, psychology, occupational medicine, clinical and preclinical studies, drug development, pharmacology, environmental health, chemistry including analytical chemistry, biochemistry, cell biology, genetics, forensic medicine, oncology and cancer research, proteomics, systems biology, hepatology and gastroenterology, aging research, psychiatric research, behavioral sciences.</p> </div> </div> IfADo - Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, Dortmund en-US EXCLI Journal 1611-2156 <p>Authors who publish in this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ul> <li>The authors keep the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution license, <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY 4.0</a>. This licencse permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.</li> <li>The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, and so forth in this publication, even if not specifically identified, does not imply that these names are not protected by the relevant laws and regulations.</li> <li>Because the advice and information in this journal are believed to be true and accurate at the time of publication, neither the authors, the editors, nor the publisher accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions presented in the publication. The publisher makes no guarantee, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein.</li> <li>The authors can enter into additional contracts for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version by citing the initial publication in this journal (e.g. publishing in an institutional repository or in a book).</li> </ul> Association of IFITM1 Promoter Methylation with severity of SARS CoV-2 infection https://www.excli.de/index.php/excli/article/view/5057 <p>During viral infections such as SARS-CoV-2, epigenetic changes in the promoter region of the immune system genes might occur and affect the immune system response as well as disease outcome. We aimed to evaluate and compare the methylation level of the <em>IFITM1</em> gene promoter in different stages of COVID-19 disease with a healthy control group.<strong>&nbsp;</strong>In this cross-sectional study,&nbsp;75 COVID-19 patients (25 mild, 25 severe, and 25 critical as well as 25 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers) were included. DNA was extracted from the peripheral white blood cells using commercial DNA extraction kit. PCR was performed using two types of primers designed for methylated and un-methylated form of the IFITM1 gene promoter.<strong>&nbsp;</strong>The mean age of the patients and healthy volunteer were 52.733±13.780 and 49.120±12.490, respectively. Out of 100 participants, 52 were male.&nbsp; The results showed that severe (P= 0.03, OR 6.729) and critical (P = 0.001, OR 11.156) patients were more likely to perform the methylation of the <em>IFITM1</em> gene in comparison with mild patients. Moreover, <em>IFITM1</em> methylation was significantly higher in COVID-19 patients in comparison with the healthy volunteer group (P=0.004, OR 3.17). Furthermore, <em>IFITM1</em> methylation in male critical patients (P=0.01) was significantly higher than male mild patients. In addition, <em>IFITM1</em> methylation of male (P=0.03) and female (P=0.01) critical patients was significantly higher compared to males and females in the healthy volunteer group. Increased methylation of the <em>IFITM1</em> gene in severe and critical stage of COVID-19 diseases may indicate the role of SARS-CoV-2 infection in increasing methylation of this antiviral gene. This might be involved in suppressing the immune system, promoting SARS- CoV-2 replication and disease outcome.</p> nasir arefinia Ramin Yaghoubi Amin Ramezani Mehrdad Farokhnia seyed ali mohammad arabzadeh Jamal Sarvari Copyright (c) 21 Liver failure Letrozole-induced, case report and review of the literature. https://www.excli.de/index.php/excli/article/view/5056 <p><strong>Goals</strong></p> <p>Letrozole is an aromatase inhibitor widely used as an anti-estrogenic therapy for breast cancer in patients expressing estrogen and/or progesterone receptors. There is currently no data that places it as a potentially hepatotoxic drug. So far, this is the first reported case of Letrozole-induced liver failure in a woman with breast cancer, so we consider the publication of this case of profound impact. It is important to inform the medical community to increase pharmacological surveillance and prevent deleterious effects for the patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods </strong>&nbsp;</p> <p>We describe an extremely rare case of a patient with Breast Cancer, clinical stage (BC) IIA, who presented hepatic failure after 1 month of treatment with neoadjuvant letrozole.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results </strong></p> <p>A 75-year-old woman with an oncologic diagnosis of breast cancer, clinical-stage IIA (T2N0M0), a biopsy showed an infiltrating ductal carcinoma without a specific pattern, estrogen receptors (ER), positive HScore 300 (sp1), progesterone receptors (PR) positive, HScore 160 (1E2), HER2 negative (sp6) and KI67 2% (4b5). Computed Tomography (CT) was negative for metastatic disease. The treatment decision was neoadjuvant therapy based on letrozole 2.5 mg/day. One month after treatment was begun; the patient presented with icteric syndrome. The patient was hospitalized for study protocol. She denied any foreign travel, concomitant alternative, and allopathic medication, as well as alcoholic beverages consumption; there was no history of transfusion or exposure to myelotoxic substances. Obstructive, infectious, and metastatic causes were ruled out.</p> <p>The patient developed liver failure manifested by grade 2 encephalopathy (West Haven scale) and grade 3 ascites and received only supportive care.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusions </strong>&nbsp;</p> <p>Liver damage by letrozole is a rare event, but can have fatal consequences, so monitoring liver function during its use is of utmost importance.&nbsp;</p> Elisa De Jesus Ramos Sayako Mariana Miyagui Adame Sandy Ruiz Cruz Jose Antonio Rodriguez Leonardo Saul Lino Silva Paula Cabrera Galeana Claudia Arce Salinas Copyright (c) 21 Roadmap to Recovery: Implemented and Attitude Towards School Reopening Strategies with Regards to the COVID-19 Pandemic, An scoping Review https://www.excli.de/index.php/excli/article/view/5055 <p><strong>Background:</strong> As an officially accepted pandemic, the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had various financial and life effects on the world's population until now. Schools function through the pandemic requires balancing repercussions of suspending in-person education versus health threats. Furthermore, children are one of the prominent victims of the performed restricted quarantine strategies' effects, becoming vulnerable to various mental health problems. Moreover, due to its highly contagious potential of this virus, CDC recommended school shut down to slow the spread of the disease. In this study, we reviewed previous reported strategies and roadmaps regarding the reopening of schools regarding the COVID-19 pandemic to consider a comprehensive roadmap for school reopening after COVID-19 lockdown and to summarize the approaches that are employed based on the experience of other nations in this regard.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> We searched all databases for any strategy for easing the lockdown and restrictions exemption program.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> a total of five papers that have roadmaps and focused on reopening the schools were included in this study. Fundamental issues and principles of all these reviewed roadmaps were: 1) protecting the vulnerable and high-risk students and staff physically and mentally, 2) accelerating the vaccination of staff, parents, and students, and 3) improving the COVID-19 testing capacity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Roadmaps for the reopening of the schools should describe some phases and steps for their strategies. Current roadmaps have not mentioned any phases and timelines for this process. Describing some health metrics in the roadmaps for progressing to the next step or returning to the previous ones is also necessary for all roadmaps and should be considered in further studies.</p> Zahra Rostami Ghotbabadi Copyright (c) 21