EXCLI Journal https://www.excli.de/index.php/excli <center><img class="img-responsive" src="/public/site/images/lindemann/Lucida_logo_neu_geschrieben.PNG" alt="EXCLI Journal Logo"></center> <p>EXCLI Journal publishes original research reports, authoritative reviews and case reports of experimental and clinical sciences.</p> <div class="toggleBox"><input id="toggleContent" name="toggleContent" type="checkbox"> <label class="open" for="toggleContent">More...</label> <label class="close" for="toggleContent">Less...</label> <div> <p><strong>EXCLI Journal </strong>(eISSN 1611-2156)&nbsp;is particularly keen to keep a broad view of science and technology, and therefore welcomes papers which bridge disciplines and may not suit the narrow specialism of other journals. Although the general emphasis is on biological sciences, studies from the following fields are explicitly encouraged:</p> <p>Immunology, toxicology, ergonomics, neurosciences, psychology, occupational medicine, clinical and preclinical studies, drug development, pharmacology, environmental health, chemistry including analytical chemistry, biochemistry, cell biology, genetics, forensic medicine, oncology and cancer research, proteomics, systems biology, hepatology and gastroenterology, aging research, psychiatric research, behavioral sciences.</p> </div> </div> IfADo - Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, Dortmund en-US EXCLI Journal 1611-2156 <p>Authors who publish in this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ul> <li>The authors keep the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution license, <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY 4.0</a>. This licencse permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.</li> <li>The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, and so forth in this publication, even if not specifically identified, does not imply that these names are not protected by the relevant laws and regulations.</li> <li>Because the advice and information in this journal are believed to be true and accurate at the time of publication, neither the authors, the editors, nor the publisher accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions presented in the publication. The publisher makes no guarantee, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein.</li> <li>The authors can enter into additional contracts for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version by citing the initial publication in this journal (e.g. publishing in an institutional repository or in a book).</li> </ul> Evaluation of organophosphorous pesticide triazophos induced immunotoxicity of spleen and head kidney in fresh water teleost, Channa punctatus https://www.excli.de/index.php/excli/article/view/3108 <p>Utilization of pesticides has increased for destroying pest and protection of crops in agriculture field. Triazophos is a commonly used organophosphorous insecticide that causes paralysis and death of insect by accumulating the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in synapse which leads to continuous flow of neuromuscular signals. Present study was designed to evaluate the effect of triazophos induced innate and cell mediated immunotoxicity in fresh water teleost, <em>Channa punctatus</em>. Fishes were exposed to triazophos at concentrations 5 and 10 % of LC<sub>50</sub> value for 10 and 20 days. Splenic and head kidney macrophage phagocytosis, nitric oxide production and superoxide production were assayed to evaluate the innate immunity. Cell mediated immunity was measured through splenic and head kidney lymphocyte proliferation in presence of T and B cell mitogens. Results of the present study revealed that macrophage phagocytosis was significantly reduced after in vivo triazophos treatment. Differential suppressive effect of triazophos was also observed where mitogen induced splenic and head kidney lymphocyte proliferations were reduced after 10 and 20 days treatment. Concentration dependent effect of triazophos was observed in vivo studies where production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates were suppressed. This study describes the first investigation of the effect of triazophos on immune functions and will help to determine appropriate ecotoxicity and immunotoxicity in fresh water teleosts.</p> Manish Tripathi Rakesh Chandra Ajay Bhardwaj Copyright (c) 19 Immunology of IL-12: An update on functional activities and implications for disease https://www.excli.de/index.php/excli/article/view/3104 <p>As its first identified member, Interleukin-12 (IL-12) named a whole family of cytokines. In response to pathogens, the heterodimeric protein, consisting of the two subunits p35 and p40, is secreted by phagocytic cells. Binding of IL-12 to the IL-12 receptor (IL-12R) on T and natural killer (NK) cells leads to signaling via signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) and subsequent interferon <em>gamma</em> (IFN-γ) production and secretion. Signaling downstream of IFN-γ includes activation of T-box transcription factor TBX21 (T-bet) and induces pro-inflammatory functions of T helper 1 (T<sub>H</sub>1) cells, thereby linking innate and adaptive immune responses. Initial views on the role of IL-12 and clinical efforts to translate them into therapeutic approaches had to be re-interpreted following the discovery of other members of the IL-12 family, such as IL-23, sharing a subunit with IL-12. However, the importance of IL-12 with regard to immune processes in the context of infection and (auto-) inflammation is still beyond doubt.</p> <p>In this review, we will provide an update on functional activities of IL-12 and their implications for disease. We will begin with a summary on structure and function of the cytokine itself as well as its receptor and outline the signal transduction and the transcriptional regulation of IL-12 secretion. In the second part of the review, we will depict the involvement of IL-12 in immune-mediated diseases and relevant experimental disease models, while also providing an outlook on potential translational approaches.</p> Karen Anne-Marie Ullrich Lisa Lou Schulze Eva-Maria Paap Markus F. Neurath Sebastian Zundler Tanja Martina Müller Copyright (c) 19 Moderate-intensity exercise improves endothelial function associated with altered gut microbiome composition in rats fed a high-fat diet https://www.excli.de/index.php/excli/article/view/3103 <p>Obesity alters gut microbial ecology, and exercise is effective in preventing obesity. There is an association between gut microbial and endothelial dysfunction in patients with obesity. However, the underlying mechanisms through which exercise improves endothelial function in obese individuals have not been fully elucidated. This study was performed to investigate whether physical exercise improves endothelial function and alters gut microbiome composition in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups, which included the non-exercise and standard diet (SD control) group, the exercise and standard diet (SD trained) group, the non-exercise and HFD (HF control) group, and the exercise and HFD (HF trained) group. Obesity was induced by a HFD for eleven weeks. The rats in the exercise groups were subjected to a moderate-intensity exercise training on a treadmill for eight weeks. The whole-body composition and endothelium-dependent relaxation of mesenteric arteries were measured. Blood biochemical tests were performed, and gut microbiomes were characterized by 16S rDNA gene sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq platform. Correlation analysis was used to detect any associations between body composition or endothelial function parameters and gut microbiome composition. Exercise training for eight weeks was effective in improving body composition in HFD-fed rats. Furthermore, compared with the HF control group, aerobic exercise significantly increased acetylcholine-induced, endothelium-dependent relaxation in mesenteric arteries (<em>P </em>&lt; 0.05), and circulating vascular endothelial growth factor levels (<em>P </em>&lt; 0.01), and decreased circulating C-reactive protein levels (<em>P </em>&lt; 0.05). In addition, exercise and HFD led to alterations in gut microbiome composition. Exercise decreased the relative abundance of <em>Romboutsia</em> and <em>Clostridiales</em>. Additionally, Pearson’s correlation analysis showed that <em>Ruminococcus_2</em> and <em>Ruminococcus_gnavus_group</em> were closely related to body composition parameters. Moreover, twelve species of bacteria, including <em>Romboutsia,</em> were significantly related to endothelial function parameters in the total subject population. These results suggest that aerobic exercise improves endothelial function and that this change is associated with altered gut microbiota composition in HFD-fed rats, providing new insights into the use of physical exercise for improving endothelial function in people with obesity.</p> Honggang Yin Dongdong Gao Jingwen Liao Shen Wang Jingbo Xia Yunjie Yang Junhao Huang Min Hu Copyright (c) 19