Letter to the editor

Current biological and pharmacological updates on wogonin

Sarita Rawat1, Gaurav Gupta1[*], Sachchidanand Pathak1, Santosh Kumar Singh1, Himmat Singh1, Anurag Mishra1, Ritu Gilhotra1, Alaa A. A. Aljabali2, Harish Dureja3, Murtaza M. Tambuwala4, Dinesh K. Chellappan5, Kamal Dua6,7,8

1School of Pharmacy, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Mahal Road, Jagatpura, Jaipur, India

2Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Yarmouk University, Irbid 21163, Jordan

3Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana 124001, India

4School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ulster University, Coleraine, County, Londonderry, BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom

5Department of Life Sciences, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Bukit Jalil, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 57000

6Discipline of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Health, University of Technology Sydney (UTS), Ultimo, NSW 2007, Australia

7Centre for Inflammation, Centenary Institute, Sydney, NSW 2050, Australia

8Priority Research Centre for Healthy Lungs, Hunter Medical Research Institute (HMRI) & School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, The University of Newcastle (UoN), Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia

EXCLI J 2020;19:Doc635


Dear Editor,

Wogonin (5, 7-Dihydroxy-8-methoxy flavone) is a traditional naturally occurring flavonoid derived from the root extract of Chinese medicine, named Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Wogonin contains various biological properties which include allergic diseases, anti-cancer therapy, and anti-inflammatory activities. Wogonin also shows the effects of removing toxins and cleansing the heart (Ancuceanu et al., 2019[1]). The anticancer therapeutic activity of wogonin has been shown by the regulation of different cell signaling pathways, which includes protein kinase B pathway (serine-threonine kinase) and AMP-activated protein kinase pathways (Bei et al., 2020[2]). Wogonin also shows positive therapeutic anticancer effects in breast cancer by inhibiting the 5-LO/BLT2/ERK/IL-8/MMP-9 signaling cascade and establishes a major pharmacological anticancer activity (Bibi et al., 2019[3]). Current biological and pharmacological updates on wogonin have been reviewed (Table 1(Tab. 1); References in Table 1: Du et al., 2019[4]; Ewendt and Foller, 2019[5]; Fang et al., 2019[6]; Gao et al., 2019[7]; Gharari et al., 2020[8]; Hanioka et al., 2020[9]; Hong et al., 2020[10]; Huang et al., 2020[11]; Jiang et al., 2019[12]; Jiao et al., 2019[13]; Khan and Kamal, 2019[14][15]; Khushdil et al., 2019[16]; Kim et al., 2019[17]; Kong et al., 2019[18]; Liang et al., 2019[19]; Liau et al., 2019[20]; Luo et al., 2019[21]; Oomen et al., 2020[22]; Tan et al., 2019[23]; Wang and Cui, 2019[24]; Wang et al., 2019[25][26]; Wang et al., 2020[27]; Xing et al., 2019[28][29]; Zhang et al., 2019[30]).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.



1. Ancuceanu R, Dinu M, Dinu-Pirvu C, Anuta V, Negulescu V. Pharmacokinetics of b-ring unsubstituted flavones. Pharmaceutics. 2019;11(8):370.
2. Bei W, Jing L, Chen N. Cardio protective role of wogonin loaded nanoparticle against isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction by moderating oxidative stress and inflammation. Colloids Surf B Interfaces. 2020;185:110635.
3. Bibi N, Jan G, Jan FG, Hamayun M, Iqbal A, Hussain A, et al. Cochliobolus sp. Acts as a biochemical modulator to alleviate salinity stress in okra plants. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2019;139:459-69.
4. Du XS, Li HD, Yang XJ, Li JJ, Xu JJ, Chen Y, et al. Wogonin attenuates liver fibrosis via regulating hepatic stellate cell activation and apoptosis. Int Immunopharmacol. 2019;75:105671.
5. Ewendt F, Foller M. p38MAPK controls fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) synthesis in UMR106-osteoblast-like cells and in IDG-SW3 osteocytes. J Endocrinol. Invest. 2019;42:1477-83.
6. Fang Y, Cao W, Liang F, Xia M, Pan S, Xu X. Structure affinity relationship and docking studies of flavonoids as substrates of multidrug-resistant associated protein 2 (MRP2) in MDCK/MRP2 cells. Food Chem. 2019;291:101-9.
7. Gao T, Xu Z, Song X, Huang K, Li Y, Wei J, et al. Hybrid sequencing of full-length cdna transcripts of the medicinal plant Scutellaria baicalensis. Int J Mol Sci. 2019;20(18):4426.
8. Gharari Z, Bagheri K, Danafar H, Sharafi A. Enhanced flavonoid production in hairy root cultures of Scutellaria bornmuelleri by elicitor induced over-expression of MYB7 and FNSП2 genes. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 2020;148:35-44.
9. Hanioka N, Isobe T, Tanaka-Kagawa T, Ohkawara S. Wogonin glucuronidation in liver and intestinal microsomes of humans, monkeys, dogs, rats, and mice. Xenobiotica. 2020;epub ahead of print.
10. Hong M, Almutairi MM, Li S, Li J. Wogonin inhibits cell cycle progression by activating the glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta in hepatocellular carcinoma. Phytomedicine. 2020;68:153174.
11. Huang Y, Guo L, Chitti R, Sreeharsha N, Mishra A, Gubbiyappa SK, et al. Wogonin ameliorate complete Freund's adjuvant induced rheumatoid arthritis via targeting NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathway. Biofactors. 2020;46:283-91.
12. Jiang L, Xiong Y, Yu L, Chen Y, Zhang Q, Ding X, et al. Simultaneous determination of seven active components in rat plasma by UHPLC-MS/MS and application to a quantitative study after oral administration of Huang-Lian Jie-Du decoction in high fat-induced atherosclerosis rats. Int J Anal Chem. 2019;2019:5628160.
13. Jiao D, Jiang Q, Liu Y, Ji L. ephroprotective effect of wogonin against cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity via inhibition of oxidative stress-induced MAPK and NF-kB pathway in Sprague Dawley rats. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2019;38:1082-91.
14. Khan S, Kamal MA. Can wogonin be used in controlling diabetic cardiomyopathy? Curr Pharm Design. 2019;25:2171-7.
15. Khan S, Kamal MA. Wogonin alleviates hyperglycemia through increased glucose entry into cells via AKT/GLUT4 pathway. Curr Pharm Design. 2019;25:2602-6.
16. Khushdil F, Jan FG, Jan G, Hamayun M, Iqbal A, Hussain A, et al. Salt stress alleviation in Pennisetum glaucum through secondary metabolites modulation by Aspergillus terreus. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2019;144:127-34.
17. Kim HJ, La JH, Kim HM, Yang IS, Sung TS. Anti-diarrheal effect of Scutellaria baicalensis is associated with suppression of smooth muscle in the rat colon. Exp Therap Med. 2019;17:4748-56.
18. Kong Z, Shen Q, Jiang J, Deng M, Zhang Z, Wang G. Wogonin improves functional neuroprotection for acute cerebral ischemia in rats by promoting angiogenesis via TGF-β1. Ann Transl Med. 2019;7(22):639.
19. Liang S, Deng X, Lei L, Zheng Y, Ai J, Chen L, et al. The comparative study of the therapeutic effects and mechanism of baicalin, baicalein, and their combination on ulcerative colitis rat. Front Pharmacol. 2019;10:1466.
20. Liau PR, Wu MS, Lee CK. Inhibitory effects of scutellaria baicalensis root extract on linoleic acid hydroperoxide-induced lung mitochondrial lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activities. Molecules. 2019;24(11):2143.
21. Luo H, Vong CT, Chen H, Gao Y, Lyu P, Qiu L, et al. Naturally occurring anti-cancer compounds: Shining from Chinese herbal medicine. Chin Med. 2019;14:48.
22. Oomen WW, Begines P, Mustafa NR, Wilson EG, Verpoorte R, Choi YH. Natural deep eutectic solvent extraction of flavonoids of scutellaria baicalensis as a replacement for conventional organic solvents. Molecules. 2020;25(3):617.
23. Tan H, Li X, Yang WH, Kang Y. A flavone, Wogonin from Scutellaria baicalensis inhibits the proliferation of human colorectal cancer cells by inducing of autophagy, apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest via modulating the PI3K/AKT and STAT3 signalling pathways. J B.U.ON. 2019;24:1143-9.
24. Wang C, Cui C. Inhibition of lung cancer proliferation by wogonin is associated with activation of apoptosis and generation of reactive oxygen species. Balkan Med J. 2019;37:29-33.
25. Wang HC, Bao YR, Wang S, Li TJ, Meng XS. Simultaneous determination of eight bioactive components of Cirsium setosum flavonoids in rat plasma using triple quadrupole LC/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study. Biomed Chromatogr. 2019;33 (11):e4632.
26. Wang J, Li T, Zhao T, Wu T, Liu C, Ding H, et al. Design of wogonin-inspired selective cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) inhibitors with potent in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity. Eur J Med Chem. 2019;178:782-801.
27. Wang L, Li C, Sreeharsha N, Mishra A, Shrotriya V, Sharma A. Neuroprotective effect of wogonin on rat's brain exposed to gamma irradiation. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2020;204:111775.
28. Xing F, Sun C, Luo N, He Y, Chen M, Ding S, et al. Wogonin increases cisplatin sensitivity in ovarian cancer cells through inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/akt pathway. Med Sci Monit. 2019;25:6007-14.
29. Xing H, Kong D, Ning C, Kong Y, Ren C, Cheng Y, et al. An investigation on glucuronidation metabolite identification, isozyme contribution, and species differences of GL-V9 in vitro and in vivo. Molecules. 2019;24(8):1576.
30. Zhang B, Li M, Zou Y, Guo H, Zhang B, Xia C, et al. NFκB/Orai1 facilitates endoplasmic reticulum stress by oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. [published correction appears in Front Cell Dev Biol. 2019;7:290]. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2019;7:202.

Table 1: Current biological and pharmacological updates on wogonin

[*] Corresponding Author:

Gaurav Gupta, School of Pharmacy, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Mahal Road, Jagatpura, Jaipur, India, eMail: gauravpharma25@gmail.com