Letter to the editor

Recent studies on myricetin and its biological and pharmacological activities

Priscilla Nadalin1, Jae Kwang Kim2, Sang Un Park1[*]

1Department of Crop Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34134, Korea

2Division of Life Sciences and Convergence Research Center for Insect Vectors, College of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, Incheon National University, Incheon 22012, Korea

EXCLI J 2023;22:Doc1223


Flavonoids are compounds characterized by a 15-carbon skeleton structure (also abbreviated as C6-C3-C6) containing two aromatic ring systems (A and B rings) and a heterocyclic ring (C) (Kumar and Pandey, 2013[37]; Dias et al., 2021[19]). Among these, flavonols have an unsaturated C ring at the C2-C3 position, which is hydroxylated at C3 and oxidized at C4. The main flavonols are myricetin (MYR), quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, and fisetin (Kim et al., 2006[35]; Spiegel et al., 2020[61]).

MYR (3,3′,4′,5,5′,7-hexahydroxyflavone) is a flavonol (Ong and Khoo, 1997[48]) derived from the parent compound taxifolin, which is turned into the (+)-dihydromyricetin intermediate and can be further chemically modified to produce laricitrin and then syringetin, both molecules in the flavonol class of flavonoids (Flamini et al., 2013[21]).

MYR is present in various fruits, vegetables, tea, berries and red wine. MYR's augmented biological activity in comparison with other flavonols is due to the pyrogallol B-ring, and the more hydroxylated structure. MYR is found in the Myricaceae, Anacardiaceae, Polygonaceae, Pinaceae and Primulaceae families (Gupta et al., 2020[24]; Taheri et al., 2020[65]). MYR displays an array of biological and pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-amyloidogenic, antibacterial, antiviral, antidiabetic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-epileptic and anti-ulcer (Imran et al., 2021[28]; Pluta et al., 2021[52]; Agraharam et al., 2022[1]; Javed et al., 2022[30]). Because of such a range of properties, MYR has been the object of great attention in recent years for its uses in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries. The present letter summarizes recent key research on the biological and pharmacological properties of MYR (Table 1(Tab. 1); References in Table 1: Ahmad et al., 2022[2]; Akhtar et al., 2020[3]; Alidadi et al., 2022[4]; Alqarni et al., 2022[5]; Aminzadeh and Bashiri, 2020[6]; Aminzadeh and Salarinejad, 2021[8]; Aminzadeh et al., 2023[7]; Anwar et al., 2022[9]; Arafah et al., 2022[10]; Bai et al., 2021[11]; Berköz et al., 2020[12]; Chen et al., 2021[13], 2023[14]; Choi et al., 2021[15]; Dai et al., 2021[16]; Dang et al., 2023[17]; Deng et al., 2021[18]; Dubey et al., 2020[20]; Gao et al., 2023[22]; Gaspar et al., 2020[23]; Han et al., 2022[25]; Huang et al., 2020[26]; Ikeji et al., 2023[27]; Jang et al., 2020[29]; Ji et al., 2022[31]; Jing et al., 2021[32]; Kan et al., 2021[33]; Kang et al., 2020[34]; Kimura et al., 2021[36]; Lalitha et al., 2020[38]; Li et al., 2022[39], 2023[40]; Lin et al., 2020[41]; Liu et al., 2022[42], 2023[43]; Lv et al., 2021[44]; Ma et al., 2021[45]; Nafee et al., 2020[46]; Nie et al., 2023[47]; Pan et al., 2023[49]; Park et al., 2021[50]; Peng et al., 2022[51]; Prajapati et al., 2020[53]; Qu et al., 2020[54]; Rajendran et al., 2021[55]; Rostami et al., 2023[56]; Salimi et al., 2021[57]; Sharma et al., 2023[58]; Soleimani and Sajedi, 2020[59]; Song et al., 2021[60]; Sun et al., 2021[62]; Sur and Lee, 2022[63][64]; Wang et al., 2020[67], 2022[66], 2023[68]; Xiao et al., 2021[69]; Xu et al., 2022[70]; Yang et al., 2022[71]; Yao et al., 2022[72]; Ying et al., 2020[73]; Zhang et al., 2020[74]; Zhao et al., 2022[75]; Zhu et al., 2020[76]).


Priscilla Nadalin and Jae Kwang Kim contributed equally as first author.



This study was carried out with the support of 'R&D Program for Forest Science Technology (Project No. 2021379B10-2123-BD02)' provided by Korea Forest Service (Korea Forestry Promotion Institute).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.



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31. Ji A, Hu L, Ma D, Qiang G, Yan D, Zhang G, et al. Myricetin induces apoptosis and protective autophagy through endoplasmic reticulum stress in hepatocellular carcinoma. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2022;2022:3115312
32. Jing S, Wang L, Wang T, Fan L, Chen L, Xiang H, et al. Myricetin protects mice against MRSA-related lethal pneumonia by targeting ClpP. Biochem Pharmacol. 2021;192:114753
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34. Kang HR, Moon JY, Ediriweera MK, Song YW, Cho M, Kasiviswanathan D, et al. Dietary flavonoid myricetin inhibits invasion and migration of radioresistant lung cancer cells (A549‐IR) by suppressing MMP‐2 and MMP‐9 expressions through inhibition of the FAK‐ERK signaling pathway. Food Sci Nutr. 2020;8:2059-67
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36. Kimura AM, Tsuji M, Yasumoto T, Mori Y, Oguchi T, Tsuji Y, et al. Myricetin prevents high molecular weight Aβ1-42 oligomer-induced neurotoxicity through antioxidant effects in cell membranes and mitochondria. Free Radic Biol Med. 2021;171:232-44
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38. Lalitha N, Sadashivaiah B, Ramaprasad TR, Singh SA. Anti-hyperglycemic activity of myricetin, through inhibition of DPP-4 and enhanced GLP-1 levels, is attenuated by co-ingestion with lectin-rich protein. PloS One. 2020;15(4):e0231543
39. Li L, Ma H, Li D, Shu Q, Wang T, Song X, et al. Myricetin alleviates the formaldehyde-enhanced Warburg effect in tumor cells through inhibition of HIF-1α. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2022;454:116246
40. Li T, Wang L, Wu L, Xie Y, Chang M, Wang D, et al. Integrated metabolomics and network pharmacology investigation of cardioprotective effects of myricetin after 1-week high-intensity exercise. Nutrients. 2023;15(6):1336
41. Lin X, Lin CH, Liu R, Li C, Jiao S, Yi X, et al. Myricetin against myocardial injury in rat heat stroke model. Biomed Pharmacother. 2020;127:110194
42. Liu JS, Fang WK, Yang SM, Wu MC, Chen TJ, Chen CM, et al. Natural product myricetin is a pan-KDM4 inhibitor which with poly lactic-co-glycolic acid formulation effectively targets castration-resistant prostate cancer. J Biomed Sci. 2022;29(1):29
43. Liu P, Zhou Y, Shi J, Wang F, Yang X, Zheng X, et al. Myricetin improves pathological changes in 3× Tg-AD mice by regulating the mitochondria-NLRP3 inflammasome-microglia channel by targeting P38 MAPK signaling pathway. Phytomedicine. 2023;115:154801
44. Lv Q, Lv Y, Dou X, Wassy SL, Jia G, Wei L, et al. Myricetin inhibits the type III secretion system of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium by downregulating the Salmonella pathogenic island I gene regulatory pathway. Microb Pathog. 2021;150:104695
45. Ma H, Song X, Huang P, Zhang W, Ling X, Yang X, et al. Myricetin protects natural killer cells from arsenite induced DNA damage by attenuating oxidative stress and retaining poly (ADP-Ribose) polymerase 1 activity. Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen. 2021;865:503337
46. Nafee N, Gaber DM, Elzoghby AO, Helmy MW, Abdallah OY. Promoted antitumor activity of myricetin against lung carcinoma via nanoencapsulated phospholipid complex in respirable microparticles. Pharm Res. 2020;37(4):82
47. Nie N, Li Z, Li W, Huang X, Jiang Z, Shen Y. Myricetin ameliorates experimental autoimmune myocarditis in mice by modulating immune response and inhibiting MCP-1 expression. Eur J Pharmacol. 2023;942:175549
48. Ong KC, Khoo HE. Biological effects of myricetin. Gen Pharmacol. 1997;29:121-6
49. Pan H, He J, Yang Z, Yao X, Zhang H, Li R, et al. Myricetin possesses the potency against SARS-CoV-2 infection through blocking viral-entry facilitators and suppressing inflammation in rats and mice. Phytomedicine. 2023;116:154858
50. Park HS, Seo CS, Baek EB, Rho JH, Won YS, Kwun HJ. Gastroprotective effect of myricetin on ethanol-induced acute gastric injury in rats. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2021;2021:9968112
51. Peng S, Fang C, He H, Song X, Zhao X, Zou Y, et al. Myricetin exerts its antiviral activity against infectious bronchitis virus by inhibiting the deubiquitinating activity of papain-like protease. Poult Sci. 2022;101(3):101626
52. Pluta R, Januszewski S, Czuczwar SJ. Myricetin as a promising molecule for the treatment of post-ischemic brain neurodegeneration. Nutrients. 2021;13(2):342
53. Prajapati KP, Singh AP, Dubey K, Ansari M, Temgire M, Anand BG, et al. Myricetin inhibits amyloid fibril formation of globular proteins by stabilizing the native structures. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2020;186:110640
54. Qu X, Li Q, Song Y, Xue A, Liu Y, Qi D, et al. Potential of myricetin to restore the immune balance in dextran sulfate sodium-induced acute murine ulcerative colitis. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2020;72:92-100
55. Rajendran P, Maheshwari U, Muthukrishnan A, Muthuswamy R, Anand K, Ravindran B, et al. Myricetin: Versatile plant based flavonoid for cancer treatment by inducing cell cycle arrest and ROS–reliant mitochondria-facilitated apoptosis in A549 lung cancer cells and in silico prediction. Mol Cell Biochem. 2021;476:57-68
56. Rostami A, Baluchnejadmojarad T, Roghani M. Hepatoprotective effect of myricetin following lipopolysaccharide/DGalactosamine: Involvement of autophagy and sirtuin 1. Curr Mol Pharmacol. 2023;16:419-33
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58. Sharma S, Tomar VR, Deep S. Myricetin: A potent anti-amyloidogenic polyphenol against superoxide dismutase 1 aggregation. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2023;14:2461-75
59. Soleimani M, Sajedi N. Myricetin apoptotic effects on T47D breast cancer cells is a P53-independent approach. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2020;21:3697-704
60. Song X, Rao H, Guo C, Yang B, Ren Y, Wang M, et al. Myricetin exhibit selective anti-lymphoma activity by targeting BTK and is effective via oral administration in vivo. Phytomedicine. 2021;93:153802
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62. Sun WL, Li XY, Dou HY, Wang XD, Li JD, Shen L, et al. Myricetin supplementation decreases hepatic lipid synthesis and inflammation by modulating gut microbiota. Cell Rep. 2021;36(9):109641
63. Sur B, Lee B. Myricetin Inhibited fear and anxiety-like behaviors by HPA axis regulation and activation of the BDNF-ERK signaling pathway in posttraumatic stress disorder rats. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2022;2022:8320256
64. Sur B, Lee B. Myricetin prevents sleep deprivation-induced cognitive impairment and neuroinflammation in rat brain via regulation of brain-derived neurotropic factor. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 2022;26:415-25
65. Taheri Y, Suleria HAR, Martins N, Sytar O, Beyatli A, Yeskaliyeva B, et al. Myricetin bioactive effects: Moving from preclinical evidence to potential clinical applications. BMC Complement Med Ther. 2020;20(1):241
66. Wang M, Ren S, Bi Z, Zhang L, Cui M, Sun R, et al. Myricetin reverses epithelial–endothelial transition and inhibits vasculogenic mimicry and angiogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma by directly targeting PAR1. Phytother Res. 2022;36:1807-21
67. Wang T, Zhang P, Lv H, Deng X, Wang J. A natural dietary flavone myricetin as an α-hemolysin inhibitor for controlling Staphylococcus aureus infection. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2020;10:330
68. Wang X, Sun Y, Li P, Wu Z, Chen Y, Fu Y, et al. The protective effects of myricetin against acute liver failure via inhibiting inflammation and regulating oxidative stress via Nrf2 signaling. Nat Prod Res. 2023;37:798-802
69. Xiao T, Cui M, Zheng C, Wang M, Sun R, Gao D, et al. Myricetin inhibits SARS-CoV-2 viral replication by targeting Mpro and ameliorates pulmonary inflammation. Front Pharmacol. 2021;12:669642
70. Xu B, Mo X, Chen J, Yu H, Liu Y. Myricetin inhibits α‐synuclein amyloid aggregation by delaying the liquid‐to‐solid phase transition. Chembiochem. 2022;23(16):e202200216
71. Yang W, Yang M, Tian Y, Jiang Q, Loor JJ, Cao J, et al. Effect of myricetin on lipid metabolism in primary calf hepatocytes challenged with long-chain fatty acids. Metabolites. 2022;12(11):1071
72. Yao X, Zhang J, Lu Y, Deng Y, Zhao R, Xiao S. Myricetin restores Aβ-induced mitochondrial impairments in N2a-SW cells. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2022;13:454-63
73. Ying X, Chen X, Wang T, Zheng W, Chen L, Xu Y. Possible osteoprotective effects of myricetin in STZ induced diabetic osteoporosis in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2020;866:172805
74. Zhang S, Xiao L, Lv L, Sang S. Trapping methylglyoxal by myricetin and its metabolites in mice. J Agric Food Chem. 2020;68:9408-14
75. Zhao Z, Chen Y, Li X, Zhu L, Wang X, Li L, et al. Myricetin relieves the symptoms of type 2 diabetes mice and regulates intestinal microflora. Biomed Pharmacother. 2022;153:113530
76. Zhu Ml, Zhang PM, Jiang M, Yu SW, Wang L. Myricetin induces apoptosis and autophagy by inhibiting PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling in human colon cancer cells. BMC Complement Med Ther. 2020;20(1):209

Table 1: Recent research on the biological and pharmacological activities of myricetin

[*] Corresponding Author:

Sang Un Park, Department of Crop Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34134, Korea; Tel.: +82-42-821-5730, Fax: +82-42-822-2631, eMail: supark@cnu.ac.kr