State-dependent memory and its modulation by different brain areas and neurotransmitters


  • Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, P.O. Box: 13145-784, Tel: +9821-66402569, Fax: +9821-66402569, E-mail:; Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Fatemeh Khakpai Cognitive and Neuroscience Research Center (CNRC), Tehran Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran



state-dependent memory, CA1, CeA, neurotransmitter, pharmacological compounds


The state-dependent memory defines as a state that the retrieval of recently obtained information may be potential if the subject exists in a similar physiological situation as for the period of the encoding stage. Studies revealed that exogenous and endogenous compounds could induce state-dependent memory. The state-dependent memory made it probable to differentiate the effects of drugs per se on learning from the effects due to alterations in drug state during the task. Studies proposed the role of regions beyond the limbic formation and illustrated that state-dependent memory produced by various neurotransmitter systems and pharmacological compounds. Our review of the literature revealed that: (a) re-administration of drugs on the same state induce state-dependent memory; (b) many neurotransmitters induce endogenous state-dependent memory; (c) there are cross state-dependent learning and memory between some drugs; (d) some sites of the brain including the CA1 areas of the hippocampus, central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), septum, ventral teg­mental area (VTA), and nucleus accumbens (NAC) are involved in state-dependent memory.



How to Cite

Zarrindast, M.-R., & Khakpai, F. (2020). State-dependent memory and its modulation by different brain areas and neurotransmitters. EXCLI Journal, 19, 1081–1099.



Review articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)