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Peritoneal metastasis is associated with poor prognosis, with studies in the literature reporting the survival of peritoneal metastasis without treatment to be three to six months. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has shown positive outcomes by improving the prognosis in patients with gastrointestinal malignancies. This systematic review of randomized controlled trials was done to determine the prophylactic role of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy in preventing and controlling peritoneal metastasis gastrointestinal origin. Randomized controlled trials published between January 2019 to June 2021 were included. The databases used were MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE (Ovid), and the Cochrane library. Cochrane handbook for systematic review of intervention was used to assess the risk of bias in included trials. The results were reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. A total of five trials met the inclusion criteria. Two studies were on patients with gastric cancer, and the other three studies were on patients with colorectal cancer. HIPEC was given to a total of 116 gastric cancer patients and 308 colorectal cancer patients. In all the included studies on patients with gastric cancer, the peritoneal recurrence-free survival was significantly higher in the group that received HIPEC. There was no significant improvement in peritoneal-free survival in patients with colorectal cancer who received HIPEC. HIPEC appears to be effective in preventing peritoneal metastasis in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer without minimal postoperative complications. However, in patients with advanced colorectal malignancy, HIPEC does not seem to play a crucial role in preventing and controlling peritoneal metastasis.
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