Resveratrol inhibits proteinase-activated receptor-2-induced release of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 from human endothelial cells
Keywords:PAR-2, resveratrol, sVEGFR-1/sFlt-1, endothelial cells, preeclampsia
We recently reported that (i) activation of the proinflammatory receptor, proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) caused the release of an important biomarker in preeclampsia, soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1, also known as sFlt-1) from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and (ii) that the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, resveratrol, is capable of inhibiting the proinflammatory cytokine-induced sVEGFR-1 release from human placenta. Based on these findings and because PAR-2 is upregulated by proinflammatory cytokines, we sought to determine whether resveratrol can inhibit PAR-2-induced sVEGFR-1 release. PAR-2 expressing cells, HUVECs and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293) transfected with a human VEGFR-1 promoter-luciferase reporter construct were incubated with PAR-2-activating peptide and/or resveratrol. Cell supernatants were assayed for sVEGFR-1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and VEGFR-1 promoter-luciferase assay was performed on the harvested cell lysates. Preincubation of HEK-293 cells with resveratrol significantly inhibited PAR-2-induced VEGFR-1 promoter activity without affecting cell viability as assessed by MTT assay. The addition of resveratrol also blocked PAR-2-mediated sVEGFR-1 release from HUVECs. The present study demonstrates that resveratrol suppressed both VEGFR-1 promoter activity and sVEGFR-1 protein release induced by PAR-2 activation, which further endorses our recent findings of a potential therapeutic role for resveratrol in preeclampsia.
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