Main Article Content
Extensive literature regarding the health side effects of ambient pollutants (AP) are available, such as diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), but limited studies are available on their electrophilic contaminant 1,2-Naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ), enzymatically derived from naphthalene. This review summarizes relevant toxicologic and biological properties of 1,2-NQ as an environmental pollutant or to a lesser degree as a backbone in drug development to treat infectious diseases. It presents evidence of 1,2-NQ-mediated genotoxicity, neurogenic inflammation, and cytotoxicity due to several mechanistic properties, including the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), that promote cell damage, carcinogenesis, and cell death. Many signal transduction pathways act as a vulnerable target for 1,2-NQ, including kappaB kinase b (IKKbeta) and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). Antioxidant molecules act in defense against ROS/RNS-mediated 1,2-NQ responses to injury. Nonetheless, its inhibitory effects at PTP1B, altering the insulin signaling pathway, represents a new therapeutic target to treat diabetes type 2. Questions exist whether exposure to 1,2-NQ may promote arylation of the Keap1 factor, a negative regulator of Nrf2, as well as acting on the sepiapterin reductase activity, an NADPH-dependent enzyme which catalyzes the formation of critical cofactors in aromatic amino acid metabolism and nitric oxide biosynthesis. Exposure to 1,2-NQ is linked to neurologic, behavioral, and developmental disturbances as well as increased susceptibility to asthma. Limited new knowledge exists on molecular modeling of quinones molecules as antitumoral and anti-microorganism agents. Altogether, these studies suggest that 1,2-NQ and its intermediate compounds can initiate a number of pathological pathways as AP in living organisms but it can be used to better understand molecular pathways.
Authors who publish in this journal agree to the following terms:
- The authors keep the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution license, CC BY 4.0. This licencse permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.
- The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, and so forth in this publication, even if not specifically identified, does not imply that these names are not protected by the relevant laws and regulations.
- Because the advice and information in this journal are believed to be true and accurate at the time of publication, neither the authors, the editors, nor the publisher accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions presented in the publication. The publisher makes no guarantee, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein.
- The authors can enter into additional contracts for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version by citing the initial publication in this journal (e.g. publishing in an institutional repository or in a book).