An update of advanced nanoplatforms for Glioblastoma Multiforme Management

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Mariana Amaral
Nuno Cruz
Ana Rosa
Beatriz Nogueira
Diana Costa
Francisco Santos
Mariana Brazão
Pedro Policarpo
Rita Mateus
Yan Kobozev
Catarina Pinto Reis


Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a very aggressive and heterogeneous glioma. Currently, GBM is treated with a combination of surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy (e.g. temozol­amide) and Tumour Treating Fields. Unfortunately, the mean survival is still around 15 months. This poor prognosis is associated with therapy resistance, tumor recurrence, and limited delivery of drugs due to the blood-brain barrier nature. Nanomedicine, the application of nanotechnology to medicine, has revolutionized many health fields, specifically cancer diagnosis and treatment. This review explores the particularities of different nanosystems (i.e., superparamagnetic, polymeric and gold nanoparticles, and liposomes) as well as how they can be applied to the treatment and diagnosis of GBM. As described, the most of the cited examples are on the preclinical phase; however, positive results were obtained and thus, the distance to achieve an effective treatment is shorter every day.

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How to Cite
Amaral, M., Cruz, N., Rosa, A., Nogueira, B., Costa, D., Santos, F., Brazão, M., Policarpo, P., Mateus, R., Kobozev, Y. ., & Reis, C. P. (2021). An update of advanced nanoplatforms for Glioblastoma Multiforme Management. EXCLI Journal, 20, 1544-1570.
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Author Biography

Catarina Pinto Reis, iMED.ULisboa, Research Institute for Medicines, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 1649-003 Lisboa, Portugal. E-mail:

Catarina Pinto Reis is currently Professor at Faculty of Pharmacy (University of Lisbon). She is a member of Imed-ULisboa and collaborator at IBEB (FCUL) research group. She is also an external consultant of Infarmed.

During 2007 to Feb 2017, she was Assistant Professor of Pharmaceutical Technology I/II and Drug Delivery Systems in the School of Sciences and Health Technologies at the Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias (Lisbon, Portugal).

She attended the University of Coimbra (Coimbra, Portugal) and graduated in Pharmaceutical Sciences. Her doctoral studies were also undertaken at the University of Coimbra with several important international collaborations where she developed an interest in advanced drug delivery systems. Those studies have been recognized through a number of national prizes. She finished her PhD in Pharmacy in 2008 as Distinguished Honor Graduate.

Since then, she has continued to work in the design and evaluation of nanoparticles and microparticles for peptide drug delivery. She is author or co-author of several articles, book chapters and inventor of patents.

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