Long-term inorganic nitrate administration protects against ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats
Keywords:nitrate, nitric oxide deficiency, osteoporosis, oxidative stress, ovariectomy, rat
The risk of osteoporotic fractures increases in women after menopause. This study aims at determining the effects of long-term inorganic nitrate administration against ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats. Rats were divided into 4 groups (n=6/group): Control, control+nitrate, ovariectomized (OVX), and OVX+nitrate. Sodium nitrate (100 mg/L in drinking water) was administered for 9 months. Trabecular bone quality in the proximal tibia was measured using a Micro-Computed Tomography (micro-CT) scanner at months 0, 1, 3, and 9. Levels of nitric oxide (NO) metabolites (NOx) and oxidative stress indices, and mRNA expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) were measured at month 9 in the proximal tibia. Compared to controls, OVX rats had lower NOx levels by 47 %, eNOS mRNA expression by 55 %, catalase activity (CAT) by 45 %, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) by 70 %, and higher malondialdehyde (MDA) levels by 327 % in the bone tissue at month 9. OVX rats, compared to controls, had lower bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N.), and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th.) by 32 %, 58 %, and 17 %, respectively, and higher trabecular separation (Tb.Sp.) by 123 %, at month 9. Nitrate administration to control rats increased TAC by 46 % in the bone tissue at month 9 but did not significantly affect other parameters in serum and bone tissue. Nitrate in OVX rats significantly increased NOx levels by 86 %, eNOS expression by 2.14-fold, CAT activity by 75 %, TAC by 170 %, and decreased MDA levels by 36 % at month 9 in the bone tissue. Nitrate-treated OVX rats at month 9 had higher BV/TV (42 %) and Tb.N. (61 %) and lower Tb.Sp. (15 %). Long-term inorganic nitrate administration at a low dose has protective effects against OVX-induced osteoporosis in rats; this effect is associated with increasing eNOS-derived NO and decreasing oxidative stress in the bone tissue.
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Copyright (c) 2022 Nasibeh Yousefzadeh, Sajad Jeddi, Khosrow Kashfi, Asghar Ghasemi
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