Plasma amino acids in major depressive disorder

between pathology to pharmacology


  • Omar Gammoh Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice; Faculty of Pharmacy, Yarmouk University Irbid 21163, PO BOX 566, Jordan; E-mail:
  • Alaa Aljabali Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology; Faculty of Pharmacy, Yarmouk University Irbid 21163, PO BOX 566, Jordan
  • Murtaza M. Tambuwala Lincoln Medical School, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool Campus, Lincoln LN6 7TS, United Kingdom; E-mail:



major depressive disorder (MDD), plasma amino acids, pathophysiology, biomarkers, tryptophan metabolism


Addressing the formidable challenge posed by the development of effective and personalized interventions for major depressive disorder (MDD) necessitates a comprehensive comprehension of the intricate role that plasma amino acids play and their implications in MDD pathology and pharmacology. Amino acids, owing to their indispensable functions in neurotransmission, metabolism, and immune regulation, emerge as pivotal entities in this intricate disorder. Our primary objective entails unraveling the underlying mechanisms and unveiling tailored treatments through a meticulous investigation into the interplay between plasma amino acids, MDD, and pharmacological strategies. By conducting a thorough and exhaustive review of the existing literature, we have identified pertinent studies on plasma amino acids in MDD, thereby uncovering noteworthy disturbances in the profiles of amino acids among individuals afflicted by MDD when compared to their healthy counterparts. Specifically, disruptions in the metabolism of tryptophan, phenylalanine, and tyrosine, which serve as precursors to essential neurotransmitters, have emerged as prospective biomarkers and critical contributors to the pathophysiology of depression. Amnio acids play an essential role in MDD and could represent an attractive pharmacological target, more studies are further required to fully reveal their underlying mechanisms.



How to Cite

Gammoh, O., Aljabali, A., & Tambuwala, M. M. (2024). Plasma amino acids in major depressive disorder: between pathology to pharmacology. EXCLI Journal, 23, 62–78.



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