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An 88-year-old woman visited our hospital for hemoptysis due to ruptured peripheral pulmonary aneurysm diagnosed by contrast computed tomography (CT) and angiography. Her bleeding was stopped by interventional radiology vascular embolization. She was diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis due to a positive acid-fast bacillus (AFB) smear test following admission and the positive polymerase chain reaction for tuberculosis, despite no obvious cavity lesions or scatter shadows on CT. The causes of hemoptysis due to pulmonary tuberculosis are known to be Rasmussen aneurysm, in which the blood vessel wall adjacent to the lung cavity is thinned to form an aneurysm, or bleeding from the bronchial artery. In this case, it was considered that the inflammation caused by pulmonary tuberculosis spread directly to the pulmonary artery and formed a pulmonary aneurysm without forming a cavity. Similar cases have been rarely reported. Clinicians need to consider pulmonary tuberculosis as the cause of pulmonary aneurysm, even without cavity lesions in the lungs. It is important to perform AFB examination to diagnose pulmonary tuberculosis.
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